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Explain the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM)

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Explain the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) including Continuous Improvement, Empowerment and Quality Function Deployment. Use examples to illustrate your points.
Submitted: 9 years ago.
Category: Homework
Expert:  Rahul Jain replied 9 years ago.

Organization must focus on quality as an integrated concept. They must improve the quality of every aspect of management whether it is labour, material or machine. Following are the foundational elements or principles of TQM

1. People: Involvement of all in achieving customer focus is a key tenet of TQM. This is achieved through Teamwork, Voluntary Activities, Consensus Building, Training, Multi-skilling, Instilling a Sense of Pride, Employee Empowerment and Leadership development. TQM creates a happy and comfortable environment where all employees are have job satisfaction and are able to make use of their capabilities and realise their potential.

2.Continuous improvement: The PDCA cycle is an unending pursuit of excellence, which is firmly embedded in TQM. Various other methods such as 5s housekeeping, Pokayoke, Just in Time manufacturing (JIT), small group activities, statistical process control, Seven Quality Tools, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and ISO systems have become an integral part of TQM implementation process.

3. Process: Utmost attention paid to the process, for making the product first time right. Problems encountered are analysed, a solution is arrived at through teamwork, an action plan is developed and the implementation results are evaluated. Process is designed with customer requirement in focus. The requirements of the customer are reduced to a specification and specifications to a defined work process so as to focus attention on the customer requirements.

4. Customer: TQM's main area of focus is customer, all the activities are aimed at customer delight and not just satisfaction. In production processes for every process the customer is not only the final user but also the next process.

Applicability of Quality Management

One of the most important elements in creating a successful business is having happy, satisfied customers that keep coming back. Satisfied customers recommend your product or service to family, friends, and associates. This ca be achieved by the customer driven quality. "Quality" is continually evolving, an emerging consensus includes Continuous Improvement and Learning: Continuous improvement and learning refers to both incremental and "breakthrough" improvement, and applies to both the individual and organizational levels. Improvement and learning can be directed toward better products and services, to better processes, and to being more responsive, adaptive, and efficient.

Thus TQ will be applicable in following manner:

• To succeed, quality management efforts need the long-term commitment and involvement of top management.

• Reject reliance on mere slogans to motivate workers, agreeing that problems in organizational performance were largely due to the system of work, not the operators.

• Planning is very important .

• Understand process variation, and noted that common and special causes require different improvement strategies.

Thus the principles can be utilized by all type of the organizations.
Continuous improvement is the hallmark of the Japanese Production System. It's also known as Kaizen. The primary objectives are to identify and eliminate "Muda," or waste in all areas, including the production process. It also strives to ensure quality and safety. The key elements of it is emphasize making a task simpler and easier to perform, re-engineering processes to accommodate the physical demands on team members, increasing the speed and efficiency of the work process, maintaining a safe work environment, and constantly improving the product quality

According to the quality guru Dr. Joseph M Juran, ten steps of the quality improvement process:

1) Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement.

2) Set goals for improvement.

3) Organize to reach the goals.

4) Provide training throughout the organization.

5) Carry out projects to solve problems.

6) Report progress.

7) Give recognition.

8) Communicate results.

9) Keep score.

10) Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company.


Motorola Printrak(2006). World Wide website. Retrieved on January 20, 2006. From

Wipro Appliying Thought (2006). Continuous Process Improvements. Wipro Technologies. Retrieve on January 20, 2006. From continuousimprovement.php?gads=GoogleQI

Motorola Printrak(2006). Word Wide website. Retrieved on January 20, 2006.


Motorola Printrak (2005). New Hire Training Book. Product Presentation, Version 1.0. Retrieved on January 17, 2006. From:

Business Process Management Training (2006). World Wide Webside. Retrieved on January 23, 2006. From analyzing-the-as-is-and-creating-the-to-be-process.html

Customer: replied 9 years ago.
This is very late. In lieu of the lateness; can you answer this one and I'll pay you.Here is the question

Explain why it is important to have a marketing plan and include what you think are the most important parts of the marketing plan. Justify your selection
Expert:  Rahul Jain replied 9 years ago.

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