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1. Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynami ...

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1. Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms
               resulted from the physical abuse they received from their parents during childhood.
               resulted from the loss of an internal locus of control.
               could not be explained readily in terms of neurological impairments.
               could not be removed by means of hypnosis.

2. Which of the following techniques was Freud most likely to use in an attempt to explore the unconscious?
              factor analysis
              free association
             projective testing

3. According to Freud, the unconscious is
       the part of human personality that lacks a sense of right and wrong.
       a set of universal concepts acquired by all humans from our common past.
        a collection of thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
      all of the above.

4. When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his
              Oedipal complex

5. Four-year-old Timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. However, he starts bed-wetting again soon after his sister is born. Timmy's behavior is most likely an example of

6. Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it
underestimates the importance of biological contributions to personality development.
is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the human capacity for destructive behavior.
offers few testable predictions that allow one to determine its validity
is overly reliant upon observations derived from Freud's use of projective tests.

7. Trait theorists are more concerned with_____ personality than_____it.
               predicting; assessing
               describing; explaining
               changing; analyzing
               interpreting; observing

8. Ellen is consistently optimistic, talkative, and impulsive. Each of these characteristics most clearly represents a
             defense mechanism.
               personality type.

9. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by
               Carl Jung.
               Gordon Allport.
               XXXXX XXXXX.
               Albert Bandura.

10. Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions, she would be classified as

11. Wesley has frequently been rebellious, inconsiderate, and self-centered, yet the pastor of his local church has always accepted and respected him. The pastor's attitude toward Wesley is most explicitly recommended by

12. Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
               have a strong ego.
               experience an extemallocus of control.
              dismiss flattering descriptions of themselves as untrue.
              underestimate the accuracy of their own beliefs.

13. American university students are more likely than Japanese university students to describe themselves in terms of their
                      academic abilities.
                      university affiliation.
                      ethnic background.
                      marital status.

14. Religious and ethnic diversity is most likely to be appreciated in a culture that values
                      reciprocal determinism.

15. Because Jane is extremely extraverted, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize. Because Jim is extremely introverted, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Jane and Jim best illustrate what is meant by
                   an external locus of control.
                   reciprocal determinism.
                   the self-serving bias.
                   the Barnum effect.

16. Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of
                     free association.
                     an Electra complex.
                     the Barnum effect.
                    an external locus of control.

17. Freire did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Freire did poorly because
                 he is unmotivated to do well in school.
                 the test covered material that had not been adequately covered in class.
                 his parents had an argument the evening before the test.
                 he was not given enough time to complete the test.

18. Social loafing is most likely among
               members of a game show audience instructed to applaud when the host appears on stage.
               factory workers paid on the basis of individual level of productivity.
               a group of runners competing for first place in a race.
               students in a college class who are each assigned a different topic for their course term papers.

19. Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after the discussion, the individuals will be
               even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.
               convinced that the death penalty should be retained.
               sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished.
               in favor of a more moderate position on the issue.

20. Kevin is the only juror to favor acquittal on a murder trial. To influence the majority, he should
                        unswervingly hold his position.
                        express some uncertainty about his position.
                        be the last member to speak and present his argument as briefly as possible.
                        address his arguments specifically to the member of the majority who seems most disagreeable.

21. An eagerness to believe that God is punishing victims of a natural disaster for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of
                               the just-world phenomenon.
                               the bystander effect.

22. The frequent observation of television violence is most likely to lead 9-year-old Fred to
                  react with a sense of distress at the sight of two children fighting on the school playground.
                  exaggerate the frequency of violent crimes in the world around him.
                  be less inhibited about personally starting a fight on the school playground.
                 experience a reduced sense of fear about the possibility of being personally assaulted.

23. Sara, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is very beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to____      than less attractive college women
                         be perceived as more socially skilled
                         have a much higher level of self-esteem
                          be perceived as less intelligent
                          date less frequently
                           have more difficulty securing employment

24. Our tendency to establish and maintain warm relationships with people if they are physically attractive and similar to us is best explained in terms of
                           the mere exposure effect.
                           social exchange theory.
                           attribution theory.
                         the just-world phenomenon.
                           the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

25. Sherif planned a disruption of the water supply in a Boy Scout camp in order to observe how social relationships are influenced by
                   ingroup bias.
                   social traps.
                   group polarization.
                   superordinate goals.
                   the mere exposure effect.

26. Cheryl publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date. Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. Cheryl's public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrates the power of
                                    social facilitation.
                                   the mere exposure effect.
                                    informational social influence.
                                   normative social influence.

27. Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is least likely to steal the merchandise if
                         her negative feelings about shoplifting result from normative social influence.
                         she is suffering the effects of deindividuation .
                         her negative feelings about stealing were developed in her early childhood.
                         she is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting.
                         she has recently shoplifted jewelry from several different stores

28. The level of obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when the "teacher" was      the experimenter and _____ the "learner."

                         close to; close to
                         far from; far from
                         close to; far from
                          far from; close to
                          solving complex mathematical problems
29. After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, a crowd of fans throws bottles and begins to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of
               the just-world phenomenon.
               the bystander effect.
               social facilitation

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