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Elements of psychology

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00709700- Elements of Psychology
1. In a typical neuron, sheaths of fatty tissue called _______
surround the axon.
A. terminals C. synapse
B. dendrites D. myelin
2. You've already gathered data to measure the relationship
between reading skills and extroversion. Now, you look at
the data to determine if reading skills and extroversion have
a negative or positive correlation. Which step of the scientific
process are you engaged in?
A. Analyzing results
B. Replication
C. Hypothesis formulation
D. Testing the hypothesis
3. The part of the eye that's similar to the film of a camera is the
A. iris. C. optic nerve.
B. cornea. D. retina.
4. Jacob was diagnosed as suffering from conductive deafness. Chances are best that his
problem has to do with
A. a disorder of his cochlea.
B. damage to his middle ear.
C. blockage of his auditory canal.
D. damage to his auditory nerve.
5. Which one of the following statements is the most accurate about genes?
A. Genes are coded instructions for producing cells.
B. Genes are often composed of several chromosomes.
C. Genes are coded instructions for producing proteins.
D. Genes are generally composed of DNA fragments.
6. Suppose you've designed an electrically operated security system that includes sensors
and activators. Signals are sent from sensors to an activator that sounds an alarm. This
signal or message can be compared to impulses sent along _______ nerve paths.
A. afferent C. efferent
B. autonomic D. sympathetic
7. Suppose you're studying levels of job stress and measures of job efficiency in a nursing
home. Which one of the following statements best represents a data comparison that
demonstrates a positive correlation?
A. As job efficiency increases, stress levels decline.
B. As stress levels increase, job efficiency increases.
C. As job efficiency decreases, stress levels increase.
D. As stress levels increase, job efficiency declines.
8. In question 7, suppose your hypothesis is that increasing job stress appears to lead to
reduced job efficiency. In that case, job stress is the _______ variable.
A. dependent C. independent
B. empirical D. correlated
9. Unobtrusive research differs from other survey research in that
A. it can be carried on without concern for random sampling.
B. it's often employed to evaluate the effects of social programs.
C. it doesn't have an impact on the subjects being studied.
D. it can produce longitudinal data that permits correlations among many variables.
10. The school of psychology that emphasizes direct observation rather than introspection is
A. behaviorism. C. functionalism.
B. structuralism. D. psychoanalysis.
11. The term _______ is used to indicate the frequency level of a sound.
A. pitch C. wavelength
B. amplitude D. overtone
12. If you're a psychologist who is fascinated by how alcohol acts on the nervous system to
alter perception, you probably follow the _______ perspective.
A. cognitive C. existential
B. psychoanalytic D. biological
13. When you step out of the bright sunshine into a dark movie theater, your vision gradually
adjusts to the relative gloom. This process is known as _______ adaptation.
A. sensory C. retinal
B. intensity D. vestibular
14. As a psychologist who focuses on helping people make life decisions, you're probably
employed as a(n) _______ psychologist.
A. industrial C. developmental
B. counseling D. clinical
15. Which of the following statements is true of the adrenal glands?
A. They're ductless glands. C. They're located in the neck.
B. They help regulate the pituitary gland. D. They secrete prolactin.
16. Among types of research, only _______ can establish causality.
A. biased studies C. random surveys
B. representative surveys D. experiments
17. Ultraviolet rays are potentially harmful to us primarily due to their
A. amplitude. C. long wavelength.
B. high frequency. D. intensity.
18. The hormone that produces male secondary sex characteristics is
A. estrogen. C. testosterone.
B. progesterone. D. prolactin.
19. As a research psychologist, you're interested in studying concepts of gender role among
immigrants of Italian descent as compared with those of Irish descent.You probably have
a _______ perspective.
A. sociocultural C. learning
B. humanistic D. case analysis
20. I propose to study the relationship between self-esteem and reading skill levels among
students at Clairmont High School. At Clairmont, about 14 percent of the student body are
seniors, 24 percent are juniors, 30 percent are sophomores, and 32 percent are freshmen.
What kind of sampling approach will I be most likely to use?
A. Stratified sampling C. Random sampling
B. Controlled sampling D. Comparative sampling

00709800- The Mind at Work
1. If you look at a photograph for a short time and then look away
from it, your trace memory of the image will
A. generally fade away in about a second.
B. typically form a lasting memory.
C. generally last about as long as the time you looked
at the photo.
D. typically be held in a sensory register for as long as
you think about it.
2. Which one of the following best illustrates a primary reinforcer?
A. The sight of a chocolate meringue pie
B. A warm smile from your boss
C. Money
D. Water when you're thirsty
3. In Freud's model of awareness, the _______ level is illustrated by the ability to bring words
to mind as you need them.
A. semiconscious C. conscious
B. preconscious D. unconscious
4. Simon is familiar with the way in which his old company has organized the human
resources department. When he moves to a new company, he applies the same
principles. Simon is probably acting in terms of a/an _______ heuristic.
A. anchoring C. framing
B. adjustment D. representativeness
5. In a classical conditioning experiment, you ring a bell but no longer provide dinner to your
subject, a beagle. At last, the CS no longer evokes the CR. Therefore, you've accomplished
A. generalization. C. extinction.
B. acquisition. D. recovery.
6. If you're shaky about your knowledge of English grammar, you would be pleased to discover
that your upcoming test contains all multiple-choice questions.Why would this please you?
A. Recognition is the easiest way to recall something.
B. Relearning is usually more effective than initial learning.
C. Seeing material in context allows you to employ short-term memory.
D. You're less likely to be affected by retroactive interference.
7. Suppose you're using an operant conditioning approach to teach someone how to use a
bow and arrow.You begin by teaching your student how to hold a longbow. Then you show
him how to maintain balance while holding the bow. Finally, you show him how to aim and
properly release the arrow toward a target at the correct moment. This operant conditioning
approach is called
A. approximation. C. partial reinforcement.
B. shaping. D. programmed learning.
8. Which one of the following depressants is an opioid?
A. Heroin C. Morphine
B. Methadone D. Methalqualone
9. How do group IQ tests administered to students create a self-fulfilling prophecy?
A. Students grouped by ability tend to decide they are either dumb or bright.
B. Students with high scores tend to feel they are superior to other students.
C. Students with low scores work harder while students with high scores don't.
D. Students grouped by ability tend to feel that teachers are cruel and unfair.
10. If you're an adherent of Freudian psychology, you maintain that dreams may represent
A. the equivalent of an off-line computer clearing its circuits.
B. concerns that trouble people during waking hours.
C. novel stimuli that trigger the deep unconscious.
D. unfulfilled wishes.
11. By comparison with the Stanford-Binet IQ measure, an advantage of the Wechsler Scales
is that they
A. have never been associated with the concept of mental age.
B. accentuate the importance of reasoning over performance.
C. provide an advantage to people who don't rely mainly on verbal skills.
D. are easier to administer to people with minimal intellectual skills.
12. Which one of the following statements best represents an algorithm?
A. If the present assembly line will take care of building the chassis, we will buy parts for
the upgraded model.
B. Since most people are either “Doves” or “Pigeons,” being nice to them gets their
C. Since plan A has worked in the past, I say we go with plan A.
D. If your customer says “yes” to the first question, go to question 4; if he or she says “No,”
go to question 5.
13. In your senior year at Jackson High, Coach Brown asks you to go to the equipment room
and pick up a package to take to the main office.You've never been on a high school sports
team, but you manage to locate the equipment room and pick up the package as requested.
According to cognitive learning theory, you are benefiting from _______ learning.
A. conscious C. latent
B. tacit D. observant
14. Which one of the following statements best illustrates implicit memory?
A. At age 40, after 15 years, George got on his old bike and found he could still ride it
without falling on his face.
B. Grace had heard the story about how, when she was three, she blew out the candles
on the cake many times. In fact, she wasn't sure whether she remembered the incident
or just imagined she did.
C. Maxwell pondered that time, so long ago, when President Roosevelt spoke on the family
D. Gina searched her memory and explained that if you know two angles of a triangle, you
also know the third, since 180 degrees minus the sum of the two angles gives you the
15. When Mary is late coming home from work, John decides that it's because she has lost
interest in their relationship. This situation illustrates the _______ effect.
A. framing C. 20-20 hindsight
B. anchoring D. context perception
16. Martha studies all the kinds of leaves she can find in order to understand what leaves have
in common. Martha's research is employing _______ reasoning.
A. deductive C. 20-20 hindsight
B. syllogistic D. inductive
17. According to Robert Sternberg's theory of multiple intelligences, practical intelligence is
associated with
A. mechanical ability. C. inductive reasoning.
B. street smarts. D. people skills.
18. Suppose you're watching your favorite soap opera. After one of the main characters is
thrown from a galloping horse, she suffers from amnesia. What type of amnesia is she
most likely experiencing?
A. Repressive C. Anterograde
B. Retrograde D. Regressive
19. If you're interested in raising a creative child, you would be wise to
A. be emphatic about correcting their thinking errors.
B. encourage independent thinking.
C. provide him or her with a lot of critical attention.
D. discourage all but supervised play.
20. Which one of the following examples best represents divergent thinking?
A. Having studied a problem for a long time, you take a nap. On waking, you discover you
can solve the problem if you gather more information.
B. Assembling all your research data, you draw the most reasonable conclusion from a
variety of sources.
C. Considering the shape of two bowls, you recognize that a bowl can be a lid as well as a
D. Observing the behavior of chipmunks for several years, you come to the conclusion that
chipmunks have some kind of intelligence.

00709900- Human Development
1. Blake amuses and challenges his teachers with his independent
thinking. He's self-reliant and responds appropriately to corrections
and criticism. Blake's parents probably use the _______
style of child rearing.
A. permissive C. authoritative
B. authoritarian D. emotional
2. ***** *****kes to use his erector set more than anything else.
When someone recently asked him what he wants to be in his
adult life, he shrugged and replied, “Oh, I guess I'll be an
accountant like my father and my older brother.” According to
James Marcia, Ronald is expressing identity
A. achievement. C. foreclosure.
B. diffusion. D. moratorium.
3. From the time a fertilized egg is implanted in a mother's uterus until about the eighth week
of pregnancy, the developing organism is called a/an
A. fetus. C. zygote.
B. embryo. D. placenta.
4. Which one of the following statements accurately reflects the current relationship between
cohabitation and marriage?
A. Most cohabiting couples don't get married.
B. People entering second marriages are more likely to cohabit than those entering first
C. Eventual divorce and cohabitation before marriage are strongly correlated.
D. Cohabitation generally assures a better success rate for couples who eventually get
5. Jenny, an average teenager, writes in her diary: “No one understands how hard my life is
and how confused I get. Why is this happening to me? Why am I so different?” A developmental
psychologist would probably say that Jenny is expressing
A. postconventional moral reasoning. C. identity moratorium.
B. role diffusion problem. D. adolescent egocentrism.
6. Susan tells Jacob that the flour jar is in the cupboard under the sink. Which among the
vital functions of human language is being expressed in this situation?
A. Storing and sharing collective knowledge
B. Interpersonal bonding
C. Expressing collective norms of behavior
D. Expressing collective expectations
7. The physiological change that most differentiates men and women during middle
adulthood is
A. declining physical abilities. C. midlife crises.
B. child rearing. D. menopause.
8. Which one of the following expressions best illustrates overregularization?
A. Doggie. C. Jody goed out.
B. Bye-bye. D. That book.
9. According to Piaget, children have acquired the cognitive skill of conservation when they're
able to
A. understand the viewpoint of other people.
B. understand that six ounces of liquid in a jar and six ounces in an elongated tube are
C. relate objects around them to their own needs.
D. realize that the term heavy describes an object one way and the term big describes it
another way.
10. Which one of the following statements accurately describes a characteristic of adolescence?
A. Adolescents tend to break ties with their families.
B. Most adolescents like to spend some time alone.
C. Serious teenage rebellion is common to most adolescents.
D. Teenage boys tend to be more open about their feelings than teenage girls are.
11. A condition that's generally the result of social pressure is
A. bulimia. C. Alzheimer's disease.
B. osteoporosis. D. menopause.
12. Two-year-old ***** *****ves in a home where the family has a German Shepherd. Sara knows
the word doggie. One day, when Sara is outside with her mother, she sees a Labrador
Retriever and says, “Doggie.” Sara is learning to apply the process of
A. overextension. C. accommodation.
B. syntax development. D. assimilation.
13. The decline of collagen, elastin, and melanin in a person's body are primarily related to
_______ changes that occur in late adulthood.
A. cosmetic C. sensory
B. heart-lung D. sexual
14. The stage of young adulthood in which individuals take time to find themselves is
A. the trying twenties. C. emerging adulthood.
B. the thirty-somethings. D. the period of role diffusion.
15. A condition of late adulthood in which the pressure in the eye increases is
A. osteoporosis. C. cataracts.
B. bulimia. D. glaucoma.
16. According to Erik Erikson, the problem of _______ will arise during adolescence as teens
try to establish a sense of their personal identities.
A. autonomy C. inferiority
B. role diffusion D. stagnation
17. The psychologist who discovered that rhesus monkeys have a need for comfort contact
A. Jean Piaget. C. Harry Harlow.
B. Carol Gilligan. D. Noam Chomsky.
18. A very small group of adolescents who share similar clothes and ideas is called a
A. phoneme. C. surrogate.
B. crowd. D. clique.
19. The reflex that causes an infant to close its fist when the palm is touched is called the
_______ reflex.
A. Palmar C. Moro
B. Rooting D. Babinski
20. The period in adolescence in which teenagers experience rapid physical growth and
hormonal changes is
A. diffusion. C. puberty.
B. preconventional. D. menarche.
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Customer: replied 10 years ago.
1. D Correct
2. A Correct
3. A D
4. A B
5. C Correct
6. D A
7. D B
8. C Correct
9. C Correct
10. A Correct
11. A Correct
12. D Correct
13. A Correct
14. B Correct
15. D A
16. D Correct
17. B Correct
18. C Correct
19. A Correct
20. A Correct

1. A C
2. D Correct
3. B Correct
4. D Correct
5. C Correct
6. A Correct
7. B Correct
8. A B
9. A Correct
10. D Correct
11. C Correct
12. D Correct
13. C Correct
14. A Correct
15. A Correct
16. D Correct
17. C B
18. B Correct
19. B Correct
20. C Correct

1. D C    
2. C Correct   
3. B Correct   
4. B Correct   
5. D Correct   
6. A Correct   
7. D Correct   
8. C Correct   
9. C B   
10. B Correct   
11. A Correct   
12. D Correct   
13. A Correct   
14. C Correct   
15. D Correct   
16. B Correct   
17. C Correct   
18. D Correct   
19. A Correct   
20. C Correct
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