Question 1 (1 point)
In 1492, Native American cultures were
a. so varied that they defy easy and simple description.
b. becoming increasingly unified and similar.
c. divided into about a dozen groups whose members shared most important cultural traits.
d. characterized by an impressive level of similarity and unity.
Question 2 (1 point)
Cahokia, near present-day St. Louis, Missouri, was
a. the center of Hopewell culture.
b. a remarkably egalitarian Mississippian village.
c. the largest Mississippian settlement.
d. the birthplace of the most powerful ancient chief.
Question 3 (1 point)
The League of Five Nations, which remained powerful well into the eighteenth century, was formed as
a. an alliance among the Algonquin tribes for the purposes of perpetuating their nomadic existence.
b. an alliance among Spain, England, France, the Netherlands, and Portugal in AD 1500 to promote New World exploration.
c. a confederation of the Iroquoian tribes for the purposes of war and diplomacy.
d. a confederation of the Aztec tribes for the purpose of establishing a trade network.
Question 4 (1 point)
The human sacrifices practiced by the Mexica are said to have been on a scale unequaled in human history; to the Mexica, human sacrifice was
a. a ritual necessary to make crops grow fruitfully.
b. a ritual modeled after their one god, Quetzalcoatl, who methodically sacrificed all the other gods as he created the universe.
c. an act of religious devotion that made sense within their culture and system of beliefs.
d. an intuitive remedy to a protein deficiency.
Question 5 (1 point)
The government of which country sponsored Christopher Columbus's 1492 exploration?
Question 6 (1 point)
When Columbus first sighted land in 1492, he believed he had discovered a new route to
a. India and China.
c. the Americas.
d. the Mediterranean.
Question 7 (1 point)
Which of the following countries first navigated a sea route from Europe to Asia?
Question 8 (1 point)
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall at
Question 9 (1 point)
The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as the
a. Columbian exchange.
b. Pan-Atlantic exchange.
c. Atlantic Trade.
Question 10 (1 point)
Hernán Cortés's dominance over Mexico was most significant because it
a. destroyed the Mayan heritage and made Spain the most powerful nation in America.
b. supplied Spain gold and diverted Spain's attention away from enemies in Europe.
c. destroyed the Mexican heritage and diverted Spain's attention away from enemies in Europe.
d. served as a model for future colonization, and disrupted the balance of power in Europe by making Spain the wealthiest nation.
Question 11 (1 point)
If you were the progeny of a Spanish man and an Indian woman in the Spanish New World, you would be considered part of which social class?
Question 12 (1 point)
The first permanent European settlement within what would become the United States was
a. Plymouth, Massachusetts.
b. St. Augustine, Florida.
c. Santa Fe, New Mexico.
d. New Orleans, Louisiana.
Question 13 (1 point)
When Pocahontas intervened to save John Smith, she was most likely participating in an Algonquian ceremony that
a. expressed the power of Powhatan's ability to control life and death and to appease the Algonquian gods.
b. demonstrated the power of females in the Algonquian matriarchal society.
c. expressed Powhatan's supremacy and his ritualistic adoption of a subordinate chief.
d. was to culminate in a human sacrifice.
Question 14 (1 point)
One of the key events that convinced King James I upon his ascension to the throne that England should and could colonize in the New World was
a. the English Reformation.
b. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada.
c. the Treaty of Tordesillas.
d. the last voyage of John Cabot.
Question 15 (1 point)
Only 38 of the 144 Englishmen who made the first voyage to what would become Jamestown, Virginia, survived the first year. This high mortality rate is explained primarily by
a. malnutrition, disease, and the failure to let go of traditional notions of class and labor.
b. malnutrition and sporadic fights with the Indians.
c. disease, cannibalism, and ignorance of farming methods.
d. bad drinking water, cannibalism, and starvation.
Question 16 (1 point)
Headrights were initiated by the Virginia Company and continued by the royal government as an incentive to encourage settlement in the Virginia colony. A headright
a. granted the right of primogeniture to immigrants as well as the right to purchase land at steep discounts.
b. permitted the head of a family the right to vote in the House of Burgesses.
c. granted the head of non-English immigrant families the rights of English citizenship.
d. granted fifty acres of land to every settler that arrived in the Chesapeake.
Question 17 (1 point)
Indentured servants tended to be
a. poor young men born in England.
b. young men and older women from England.
c. poor young men born in the colony.
d. natives and prisoners from England.
Question 18 (1 point)
The term yeoman planter refers to a
a. farmer who rents his land.
b. poor farmer who wears the yoke of an ox and pulls his own plow.
c. wealthy farmer who owns only a few slaves.
d. farmer who owns a small plot of land that is worked primarily by himself and his family.
Question 19 (1 point)
By the 1670s, the Chesapeake social structure was polarized. This social structure was based on which of the following criteria?
a. Race, income, and birthright
b. Race, ownership of land, income, and whether one was Catholic or Protestant
c. Ownership and quantity of land, income, and degree of freedom
d. Income and ownership of servants and slaves
Question 20 (1 point)
Bacon's Rebellion erupted in 1676 as a dispute over Indian policy, and ended as a conflict between
a. Indians and the Virginia militia.
b. the planter elite and small farmers.
c. small farmers and newly freed servants.
d. indentured servants and their masters.
Question 21 (1 point)
For planters, a slave labor system had important advantages over a servant labor system because slaves
a. could be controlled politically.
b. naturally worked harder.
c. cost less than indentured servants.
d. never ran away.
Question 22 (1 point)
Roger Williams was
a. a vocal dissenter in early Massachusetts who challenged the religious and political leadership of the colony's powerful men.
b. the chief minister in Boston to whom all other Puritan clergymen reported.
c. the first Massachusetts settler to lead a Puritan exodus to New York.
d. the governor of Massachusetts from 1640 to 1652.
Question 23 (1 point)
King Henry VIII saw in the Protestant Reformation the opportunity to
a. renounce his Catholic faith so that he could achieve salvation.
b. organize a large army and march on the Vatican.
c. make himself the head of the church and confiscate its properties in England.
d. end religious disputes and unrest in England.
Question 24 (1 point)
Samoset and Squanto were
a. leaders of hostile Narragansett Indians threatening to wipe out the young Plymouth colony.
b. Wampanoag Indians who befriended the Plymouth settlers and helped ensure the survival of the young colony.
c. leaders of hostile Wampanoag Indians threatening to destroy Massachusetts Bay.
d. friendly Wampanoag Indians who helped Puritans settling Connecticut survive their first year.
Question 25 (1 point)
According to John Winthrop's sermon aboard the Arbella, the Puritans had “entered into a covenant” with God, meaning that they
a. had been chosen to do God's special work of building a holy community as an example to others, and failure meant suffering God's wrath.
b. had agreed to leave England in return for God's assurance that they would, at the very least, survive in the American wilderness.
c. were to transfer the beliefs of the Church of England to the western shores of the Atlantic in return for ten generations of peace and prosperity.
d. had been chosen to set up a missionary franchise in America with the exclusive charge to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
Question 26 (1 point)
The New England town meeting
a. was the first political format in early America to allow women and blacks a significant political voice.
b. was basically a male bonding experience that allowed the men of the community to gather for militia drill and a day of revelry.
c. brought together a town's inhabitants and freemen in an exercise of voting and popular political participation unprecedented elsewhere in the seventeenth century.
d. is a mythical concept in early-American history and was never very important.
Question 27 (1 point)
The Halfway Covenant was a
a. measure designed to alleviate a labor glut in Massachusetts by instituting a half-day's pay for a half-day's work.
b. measure instituted by Puritan leaders in 1662 allowing the unconverted children of visible saints to become halfway church members, a measure meant to keep communities as godly as possible.
c. a rule adopted in Massachusetts allowing the unconverted to worship in the colony's meetinghouses, but only in the back half of the buildings.
d. legal agreement between merchants and shippers dividing the cost of lost cargoes between the two.
Question 28 (1 point)
Members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, believed that
a. there was no such thing as God; rather, each human being was his or her own “god.”
b. God spoke directly to each individual through an “inner light” that directed them to worship only on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
c. God spoke directly to each individual through an “inner light” and that only a few individuals possessed the talent to interpret God's voice sufficiently to be a clergyman.
d. God spoke directly to each individual through an “inner light” and that neither a minister nor the Bible was necessary to discover God's word.
Question 29 (1 point)
As proprietor of Pennsylvania, William Penn
a. was severely restricted in his actions by the ruling council of Pennsylvania.
b. had extensive powers subject only to review by Parliament, and he sometimes chose to exercise his powers quite ruthlessly.
c. could do whatever he wanted with and in the colony.
d. had extensive powers subject only to review by the king, but he chose to appoint a governor who could veto legislation of the colonial council.
Question 30 (1 point)
In eighteenth-century America, the main sources of population growth and diversity were
a. Russian and English immigrants.
b. Irish and Italian immigrants.
c. Eastern European and Palatine German immigrants.
d. immigration and natural increase.
Question 31 (1 point)
Because of the colonial New England practice of “partible inheritance” in land distribution, by the eighteenth century lands could no longer be subdivided, as the plots had become too small for a family to make a living. Partible inheritance means that lands were subdivided
a. about equally among all the sons in a family.
b. between the eldest and youngest males of the family.
c. about equally among all the children in a family.
d. among the wife and three oldest children in a family.
Question 32 (1 point)
Why were there so few slaves in New England during the eighteenth century?
a. New England's family farming was not suited for slave labor.
b. The slave trade was prohibited in New England.
c. New Englanders did not have the money to buy slaves.
d. Slaveholding violated Puritan beliefs.
Question 33 (1 point)
Many Germans without passage money arrived in Philadelphia as “redemptioners,” which were
a. persons who had obtained money for passage from a friend or relative in the colonies or by selling themselves as servants once they arrived.
b. skilled artisans who agreed to work a year in the colonies in exchange for passage.
c. persons who redeemed their possessions with a ship's captain for passage to the colonies.
d. persons who agreed to work aboard ship in exchange for free passage to the colonies.
Question 34 (1 point)
Poor Richard's Almanack mirrored the beliefs of its Pennsylvania readers in its glorification of
a. the small farmer.
b. Quaker values.
c. work and wealth.
d. the slave as a “noble savage.”
Question 35 (1 point)
The defining feature of the southern colonies in the eighteenth century was
a. sugarcane farming.
b. parasitic diseases due to the heat.
d. cotton farms.
Question 36 (1 point)
A “country-born” slave was one who
a. had been held in slavery for ten years.
b. was used to the ways of southern slavery after a seasoning process.
c. combined African and European languages into a distinct dialect.
d. was born into slavery in the colonies.
Question 37 (1 point)
Southern masters preferred black slaves over white indentured servants because
a. indentured servants were surly and talked back.
b. slaves served for life and could be disciplined more harshly.
c. indentured servants would not work as many hours as slaves.
d. masters had to pay indentured servants a small sum each year.
Question 38 (1 point)
In the eighteenth century, the Southern slaveholding gentry dominated
a. the Supreme Court.
b. the U.S. Congress.
c. both the politics and the economy of the South.
d. the Atlantic coastal towns.
Question 39 (1 point)
The Great Awakening can best be described as a(an)
a. appeal to Protestants to band together as one.
b. appeal to the head, not the heart.
c. revival movement to convert nonbelievers and revive the piety of believers.
d. movement to convert Catholics.
Question 40 (1 point)
During the eighteenth century, colonists in America
a. became remarkably homogeneous given the number of immigrants.
b. worked incessantly to make their society thoroughly colonial, rejecting as much of British culture and fashion as possible.
c. thought of themselves as both British subjects and colonists.
d. were ready to break with England.
Question 41 (1 point)
The French and Indian War (called the Seven Years' War in Europe) resulted from
a. navigation of the Ohio River.
b. French claims to fur trapping along the Ohio Valley.
c. a dispute between Indians, Virginians, Pennsylvanians, and the French over territory in the Ohio Valley.
d. a dispute between Indians, the French, and the British over territory in the Ohio Valley.
Question 42 (1 point)
The Albany Plan of Union, as proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson, was
a. helpful in gaining the pledge of the Iroquois to fight the French.
b. accepted by the colonies and turned down by England.
c. accepted by all of the colonies.
d. not approved by the colonies or by England.
Question 43 (1 point)
The turning point of the French and Indian War was most likely William Pitt's
a. extreme bravery and use of guerrilla tactics.
b. negotiations with the Iroquois Nation.
c. willingness to commit massive resources to the war.
d. capture of the French fortress city of Quebec.
Question 44 (1 point)
The Proclamation of 1763 was meant to
a. protect the Iroquois Indians from French settlers encroaching upon their lands.
b. establish a permanent boundary line dividing Indian land and colonial claims.
c. prevent colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
d. protect the French fur trade.
Question 45 (1 point)
Growing colonial resentment of British authority during the 1760s could be attributed to
a. increased exports from other countries.
b. increased trade possibilities.
c. increased taxation and intrusion by Britain.
d. continuous abuse by the British soldiers.
Question 46 (1 point)
An important difference between the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act was that the latter
a. was merely a revision of a previously existing tax, so colonists could not object as strenuously.
b. was an internal tax that few colonists could escape.
c. received united support from members of Parliament and could therefore be effectively enforced.
d. instituted a tax that was to be paid mainly by merchants and shippers.
Question 47 (1 point)
George Grenville claimed that Americans had “virtual representation” because
a. the colonists were allowed to send delegates to the House of Commons.
b. the members of the House of Commons represented all British subjects, wherever they were.
c. the colonies had their own assemblies.
d. the colonists were represented in the Continental Congress.
Question 48 (1 point)
American opposition to the Stamp Act took the form of
a. street fighters who maimed or murdered anyone who supported the act.
b. congressional meetings in Philadelphia to protest the legislation to the king.
c. gangs of seamen who tarred and feathered stamp distributors.
d. burning an effigy of a stamp collector, breaking windows, and ransacking an official's home.
Question 49 (1 point)
In response to the colonial reaction to the Stamp Act, the British government
a. repealed the act but reaffirmed parliamentary power by passing the Declaratory Act.
b. reinforced all British garrisons in North America and prepared for a long conflict.
c. concluded that the colonies were incapable of cooperating and that the next phase of imperial restructuring should begin.
d. revoked the act and slowly began to return colonial lawmaking to the colonies.
Question 50 (1 point)
In 1767, Charles Townshend enacted the Revenue Act, which
a. taxed building materials, such as brick and wood.
b. placed new duties on imported items such as tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors.
c. was a form of income tax.
d. levied an internal tax.
Question 51 (1 point)
Mounting tensions between Bostonians and British soldiers in early 1770 led to the Boston Massacre,
a. a riot that killed two hundred people before it was brought under control.
b. a mutiny aboard British ships carrying tea.
c. a skirmish in which five people were killed.
d. a confrontation in which a customs official was murdered.
Question 52 (1 point)
Bostonian reaction to the Tea Act culminated in December of 1773 with the dumping of 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor, an action eventually known as the
a. Boston Port Incident.
b. East India Protest.
c. Boston Tea Party.
d. Defiance by Bostonians.
Question 53 (1 point)
The Coercive Acts, passed by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for dumping the tea, included
a. an addendum to the Declaratory Act.
b. a law stipulating that any Massachusetts colonist accused of a capital crime would be tried in Canada or England.
c. the appointment of Benedict Arnold as the new governor of Massachusetts.
d. a law closing Boston harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for.
Question 54 (1 point)
General Gage planned a surprise attack on an ammunition storage site in Concord
a. because he knew it would be unguarded.
b. to put down the small group of rabble-rousers he believed was causing all the colonial dissent.
c. because he was ordered to quell the dissenters before they became more organized.
d. because the site contained all the firepower in the area.
Question 55 (1 point)
The first shot at Lexington was fired by
a. a member of the Continental army.
b. a British soldier.
c. an unknown person.
d. an American militiaman.
Question 56 (1 point)
When George Washington took control of the Continental army he found
a. enthusiastic but undisciplined troops.
b. sober and disciplined troops.
c. excellent facilities but insubordinate troops.
d. soldiers who came to fight for the duration of the war.
Question 57 (1 point)
The Battle of Bunker Hill
a. demonstrated George Washington's leadership abilities.
b. was a victory for the Patriots.
c. was a costly victory for the British.
d. forced the British to realize they should quickly move westward to defeat the new Continental army.
Question 58 (1 point)
In 1775, most of the delegates to the Continental Congress remained reluctant to break with Britain because they
a. worried about losing Britain's military support, economic conditions, and political stability.
b. viewed their connections to the British Empire as new and untested.
c. maintained strong ties with parliament despite doubts about the legitimacy of the monarchy.
d. feared an invasion from England's traditional enemies—the Dutch and Portuguese.
Question 59 (1 point)
The author of the Declaration of Independence was
a. John Adams.
b. John Dickinson.
c. Thomas Jefferson.
d. Benjamin Franklin.
Question 60 (1 point)
One of the main obstacles the British army faced in the Revolutionary War was
a. the logistics of supplying an army with food and supplies across three thousand miles of water.
b. that the loyalists were spread too thin among the colonies.
c. that they were highly motivated to destroy and conquer.
d. that they had too many generals with little experience.
Question 61 (1 point)
The British strategy in the war in America was to
a. ravage the American towns and countryside in hopes of wearing down the people.
b. amass as many men as possible in the north, the nerve center of the colonies.
c. recapture the thirteen colonies in a divide-and-conquer approach, with loyalist help.
d. destroy the colonies at almost all costs.
Question 62 (1 point)
The Continental army enjoyed its first victory over the British on Christmas night in 1776, when the Americans
a. became firmly entrenched on Long Island and from there moved on to the middle colonies.
b. crossed the Delaware River to surprise the Hessians at Trenton.
c. retook the city of Philadelphia.
d. attacked and captured Quebec.
Question 63 (1 point)
In the first year of the Revolutionary War, what really saved the American army may have been
a. British reluctance to follow through militarily when they had the advantage.
b. Britain's lack of naval support.
c. the inability of the British to hold New York City.
d. the many casualties within British ranks produced by their recklessness.
Question 64 (1 point)
Burgoyne's defeat at the second Battle of Saratoga was a decisive moment in the Revolutionary War because it
a. vindicated Burgoyne's strategy of mounting an attack from Canada.
b. brought France into the war on the side of the Patriots.
c. caused Benedict Arnold to defect to the British.
d. discredited Horatio Gates, resulting in his being replaced by Nathaniel Greene.
Question 65 (1 point)
In the final phases of the Revolutionary War, the British
a. attempted to recapture the southern colonies and place loyalists in power.
b. decided to mount a naval battle to exploit American weaknesses.
c. enlisted large numbers of Indian tribes to aid their cause.
d. put slaves on the front lines to fight the patriots.
Question 66 (1 point)
British gains from their southern campaign partly resulted from information provided to them by an American traitor,
a. Nathaniel Greene.
b. General William Howe.
c. Major John André.
d. Benedict Arnold.
Question 67 (1 point)
By the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783,
a. loyalists' land was to be returned to them.
b. the king acknowledged that the United States were “free Sovereign and independent States.”
c. the Indians retained the Ohio Valley.
d. the Americans were given Florida and half of Louisiana.
Question 68 (1 point)
The British lost the Revolutionary War partly because
a. royal governors were imprisoned early in the war.
b. of America's alliance with France, which provided artillery and ammunition, fresh troops, and naval support.
c. their food supply was cut off by heavy rains periodically.
d. there were very few loyalists to help them win the war.
Question 69 (1 point)
The weaknesses of the national government under the Articles of Confederation included its
a. inability to raise money to finance the war.
b. lack of an executive or judicial branch and of the power to levy taxes.
c. lack of a way to amend the articles should that need arise.
d. inability to conduct foreign relations.
Question 70 (1 point)
Under the Articles of Confederation,
a. five states had to approve war-making decisions.
b. each state had a single vote in Congress.
c. all thirteen states had to approve routine decisions.
d. three-quarters of the states had to vote to approve or amend the articles.
Question 71 (1 point)
Virginia's constitution was the first to
a. give more power to the governor.
b. include a bill of rights.
c. abolish the upper house altogether.
d. include longer terms for the governor.
Question 72 (1 point)
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
a. provided for the eventual creation of eight to ten new states.
b. prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory.
c. required compulsory elementary education in each new township.
d. funded an exploratory party to locate the Northwest Passage.
Question 73 (1 point)
The major legacy of Shays's Rebellion was
a. the realization that the Articles of Confederation were inadequate and thus a reworking of national government was needed.
b. a series of similar revolts by farmers in other states.
c. the idea that civil disobedience was an American liberty.
d. action by state legislatures to curb the powers of Congress.
Question 74 (1 point)
At the constitutional convention, the proposal to create a two-chamber national legislature, with representation in both houses based on each state's population, was known as the
a. Virginia Plan.
b. New Jersey Plan.
c. Connecticut Plan.
d. Three-Fifths Plan.
Question 75 (1 point)
As a part of the Great Compromise, delegates at the Philadelphia Convention agreed
a. on a lower house whose seats would be apportioned on the basis of population, and an upper house—the Senate—that would have two senators per state.
b. on the Supreme Court and a system of lower national courts.
c. on a procedure for direct election of a chief executive.
d. that voters would directly elect the members of the upper house, the Senate.
Question 76 (1 point)
To create a presidency out of the reach of direct democracy, the delegates to the constitutional convention
a. said that the state legislatures would choose the president.
b. devised the electoral college.
c. provided for a popular vote to elect the president.
d. said that the Senate and House would vote for a president.
Question 77 (1 point)
The Constitution most clearly shifted the balance of power in favor of
a. northern over southern states.
b. mercantile over agrarian interests.
c. national over state governments.
d. large over small states.
Question 78 (1 point)
Antifederalists were united mainly by
a. religious backgrounds.
b. their desire to block the Constitution.
c. levels of wealth.
Question 79 (1 point)
The authors of The Federalist essays originally wrote them
a. as a history of the constitutional convention.
b. to provide an authoritative commentary on the Constitution.
c. as a pamphlet promoting the Bill of Rights.
d. as newspaper articles in favor of ratifying the Constitution.
Question 80 (1 point)
The Constitution did not include or anticipate
a. a way to amend the it.
b. a two-party system.
c. political parties.
d. a voice for the smaller states.
Question 81 (1 point)
Washington chose which of the following men to be his secretary of the treasury?
a. Thomas Jefferson
b. Alexander Hamilton
c. James Madison
d. Henry Knox
Question 82 (1 point)
In response to promises that had been made in order to obtain ratification of the Constitution, James Madison drew up the
a. Judiciary Act of 1789.
b. Whiskey Bill.
c. Fugitive Slave Act.
d. first ten amendments to the Constitution, commonly called the Bill of Rights.
Question 83 (1 point)
American cotton production underwent a real boom in the late 1790s because of
a. market conditions and the invention of the horse-drawn plow.
b. the increased need for cotton due to the burgeoning population.
c. transportation innovations, especially the improved canal system.
d. market conditions and the invention of the cotton gin.
Question 84 (1 point)
Before the government settled upon Washington, D.C., as its permanent home, the capital had been moved from
a. Philadelphia to Baltimore.
b. New York City to Baltimore.
c. New York City to Philadelphia.
d. Philadelphia to New York City.
Question 85 (1 point)
To meet the interest payments on the national debt under his assumption plan, Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to pass
a. legislation making it illegal to smuggle.
b. an increased export duty.
c. a 25 percent excise tax on whiskey.
d. an increased import duty.
Question 86 (1 point)
In response to Hamilton's arguments that the Constitution granted broad rights to regulate commerce, which would allow for the establishment of the Bank of the United States,
a. Jefferson championed the bank and argued for its constitutionality.
b. the bank was established, but the sale of its stock went largely unnoticed by the public.
c. President Washington agreed with Hamilton's interpretation of the Constitution and signed the bank into law in 1791.
d. President Washington questioned the morality of a public bank in which private citizens could invest.
Question 87 (1 point)
The main purpose of the moderate tariff that Hamilton proposed in his Report on Manufactures was to
a. raise all the funds the federal government needed to operate.
b. raise the price of domestic products so that merchants and manufacturers, Hamilton's main supporters, would prosper.
c. protect and foster domestic manufacturing.
d. punish the British for their discriminatory tariffs.
Question 88 (1 point)
The Whiskey Rebellion
a. was led by Federalist merchants who sold imported liquor.
b. was led by tavern keepers on the frontier.
c. occurred among city workers angered by the high price of whiskey.
d. was a protest by grain farmers against the excise tax on whiskey.
Question 89 (1 point)
In response to the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, President Washington
a. nationalized the Pennsylvania militia and led the effort to put down the revolt.
b. waited until the rebellion died down before acting.
c. suggested that Congress repeal the tax.
d. demanded that the governor of Pennsylvania take action to enforce the national law.
Question 90 (1 point)
What was President Washington's first reaction to the war between England and France that began in 1793?
a. He pledged American support for the English.
b. He issued a Neutrality Proclamation.
c. He tried to negotiate peace between the two countries.
d. He pledged American support for the French.
Question 91 (1 point)
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne's defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timbers resulted in
a. escalated fighting in the Northwest Territory.
b. the Treaty of Fallen Timbers.
c. the Treaty of Greenville.
d. the Indians ceding all of their tribal lands in the Northwest Territory.
Question 92 (1 point)
In his farewell address, President Washington spoke against
a. a president serving more than three terms in office.
b. Federalist policies.
c. America forming permanent alliances with foreign countries and forming political parties.
d. Republican policies.
Question 93 (1 point)
In the 1796 presidential election, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
a. ended up being president and vice president.
b. had very similar political outlooks.
c. ran on the same ticket.
d. pledged to disband the electoral college.
Question 94 (1 point)
In the fall of 1797, in order to avert a war with France, President Adams
a. called for a boycott of English goods.
b. sent three men to negotiate peace with France.
c. called for immediate full-scale military preparedness to scare the French.
d. advised American privateers to cease shipping to England.
Question 95 (1 point)
Following the XYZ affair,
a. President Adams chose to submit to Tallyrand's demands.
b. Congress called for a boycott on trade with France.
c. Congress repealed all prior treaties with France and launched into an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.
d. Americans seemed mildly disturbed, but were more interested in the workings of the new federal government.
Question 96 (1 point)
Republicans used the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions to
a. were written to protect those indicted of seditious acts.
b. oppose the Alien and Sedition acts using state legislatures.
c. were an attempt to protect the institution of slavery in the South.
d. called for the impeachment of President Adams.
Question 97 (1 point)
In the election of 1800,
a. party lines were drawn between Republicans and Federalists.
b. Adams gained momentum because of his work in resolving the crisis with France.
c. Adams's chief opponent was Alexander Hamilton.
d. Republicans began switching to the Federalist Party.
Question 98 (1 point)
Which of the following statements characterized the Federalists in 1800?
a. They opposed commercial advancements.
b. They were pro-French.
c. They advocated a strong centralized government.
d. They were made up of farmers and artisans.
Question 99 (1 point)
In 1800, Republicans could be described as
b. sympathetic to French republican ideals.
c. alarmed about the excesses of democracy.
d. promoting a strong federal government.
Question 100 (1 point)
Tecumseh's most impressive achievement was probably his
a. invention of a common Native American language.
b. success in regaining Shawnee lands claimed by the U.S. government.
c. construction of an unprecedented and unified Indian confederacy.
d. military conquest of the Ohio country.
Question 101 (10 points)
In a minimun of four praragraphs respond to the following: The Puritan faith community shaped the New England colonies in virtually every way during much of the seventeenth century. Discuss the ideas and religious principles that characterize Puritanism and explore the significant differences between the Puritan sect led by William Bradford, who founded Plymouth colony, and the group of Puritans led by John Winthrop, who founded Massachusetts Bay colony.
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Question 102 (10 points)
In a minimun of four praragraphs respond to the following: During the 1780s, the revolutionary generation made fundamental changes in the framework of the national government. In a well-developed essay, address the following questions: (1) Why was the Articles of Confederation replaced by the Constitution? (2) How did the Constitution alter the structure and operation of the national government? (3) What does the Constitution mean to America?
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Subject: US HISTORY TO 1877