Dysplasia in the colon is divided into low grade and high grade dysplasias. While all high grade dysplasias need to undergo total removal of the colon, low grade dysplasia has some criteria for this surgery.
-There must be long term ulcerative colitis or other inflammatory bowel disease - usually more than 8 years.
- If the dysplasia affect more than 50% of the colon.
- If it is a flat type of dysplasia (was yours on the polyp or in another part of the colon?)
- If the ulcerative colitis has not responded to the maximum possible medical treatment
Since, in your case, the dysplasia was diagnosed from only a small biopsy specimen from the rectum. I believe that you will need a more detailed colonoscopy and further biopsies from other sites higher up in the colon to decide on the course of the treatment.
But, I am afraid many gastroenterology do suggest that total removal of the colon is the only treatment of colon dysplasia, whether high grade or low grade, since the chances of developing full-blown cancer is very high.
To know more about the treatment procedures of low grade colon dysplasia, please see:
- http://www.aafp.org/afp/20050201/practice.html please scroll down to 'Cancer Surveillance'.