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Thank you for your question. The Schengen visa is issued for between 3 and 6 months, based on European law.
However, your parents may apply for a National (German) Visa, which is issued for longer periods (section 6 para. 3 of the Law on Residence). The conditions for granting this visa are the same as for residence permits. The most appropriate section where they could fall under would be section 36 para. 2 of the same law, dealing with subsequent immigration of parents and other dependants. Given that you are a German citizen, and that your parents have a stable financial situation, being retired, and assuming that you can undertake their support in Germany, I would see no problem with them obtaining a national long-term visa (called C3), valid for 3 years. The procedure should be dealt with by the German Embassy / Consulate in India, because, while provided for in the law, these visas are not very common, and it might take a while, but once granted it is valid for 3 years, and can even be extended.
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Dr I L Vlad
Excuse the delay. Yes, I can confirm that. Once a person has residency in one EU country, then they can travel and settle in any other EU country (including non-Schengen, such as Britain). So if they have permanent residency in Bulgaria, they can travel and live in any other EU country, without any kind of visa.
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