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Does your E150 have remote keyless entry?
The RKE is mounted behind the drivers seat on the side panel. Does it have power door locks?
Is it a stock van or a conversion van?
Ok. It is stock Ford vehicle. You will have to remove the inside lower trim panel behind the drivers seat on the drivers side. You may have to remove the second row seats to access the panel. The starting circuit goes through the RKE and if the fuse blows, the module is not working and the starting circuit is interrupted causing your problem. But check the wiring around the module and also check the wiring to the rear AC blower motor.
Your van has anti theft which is the white one and remote keyless entry which is the black box. Unplug the white box and use a paper clip or a spare piece of wire and jump pins 12 and 24 which are the white/pink striped wire and leave the module unplugged. Start the engine with a new fuse and see if the fuse still blows.
Below is a picture of the connector and the wiring pins.
Unplug both. You are jumping the starter circuit with the wire which takes the antitheft module out of the circuit and eliminates it for the test. You can reply back when you are ready. I'll get an email when you do. The truck should stay running if the module is the problem. But if the fuse still blows, we will need to trace that wiring out to find the short.
Sorry. Have been out of town for training for Ford.
Take the jumper wire out and disconnect the battery. Then use a multimeter with it set to ohms. Check both pins 12 and 24 for resistance to ground. Basically place one meter lead on ground and the other lead on either pin and se if you have continuity to ground.
Go underneath the vehicle on the drivers side and unplug the transmission range sensor. This is located on the drives side of the transmission where the shifter cable connects and then recheck pin #24 the same way. See if it goes OL.
Ok. Look at the range sensor connector and locate the RED/LIGHT BLUE wire and check it the same way. See if it reads OL. Make sure the battery is disconnected.
Disconnect all the wires from the starter relay on the fender and recheck the wire. Make sure the wires are not touching ground when they are disconnected.
Yes, the starter solenoid/relay in the engine bay.
It is located on the drivers side of the engine bay next to the battery behind the drivers side headlight. See the diagrams below.