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The general school of though is that since baptism is a personal choice -- not a legal issue -- the church is not required to notify the parents before performing a baptism, and as a result, is not required to have parental permission.
However, there is another school of thought that claims that a forced baptism is the tort of battery and would be actionable. This is so because children are legally incapable of making decisions as they lack the legal capacity to vote or enter contracts.
Since this is a religious issue, how things shake out can largely depend on the area you live in and what the religious climate of that area is.
That said, it would be a difficult claim to prevail on since the child apparently made a voluntary choice to be baptized.....unless the child is very, very young (6 or younger).
One other interesting issue is that IF your church has a written policy that says it will not baptize a child without parental consent, and it did just that, you may have a claim for the church breaching its policies that you have a right to rely on.
It's not a non-answer --- there's just no definite cookie-cutter answer to the situation......it's one of those things that could go either way depending on who's deciding the matter.
Your best option would be to raise the breach of policy argument as it is much stronger and easier to establish than the alternative argument of whether what occurred is nothing or the tort of battery.