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You need to contact the Clerk's Office of the Courthouse where the adoption took place to unseal the adoption records and provide you with the information that you need. If there is no record of the adoption, then the adoption did not take place.
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Unfortunately, while the answer here is not overly complex, it is not something some people may want to hear. You can correct this situation. First off, if you cannot find any records of the adoption, this is an issue as far as the adoption itself is concerned and if your step father is deceased, without proof of the adoption you cannot claim there was a legal adoption through the court without bringing in first hand witnesses to the adoption in court. However, the good thing is this does not really matter in correcting your passport issue.
In order to correct the passport issue though, it is going to take a court ordered name change, which you can accomplish by filing a Petition for Name Change with your local court. You can change your name to the same name your SS and Drivers license and other documents are in and you can get the court to issue the name change order to vital records to change your birth certificate to match those other documents and once you have done so (takes 30-60 days depending on how busy the court is at the time) you can then obtain a passport and also a Real ID license without any issues at all.