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You could change the child's last name, but you would have to file a petition for your new husband to adopt the child and change her name. The only way a court is going to allow a name change is if there is a court proceeding where the father is notified and loses those rights either by choice (meaning that he voluntarily relinquishes those rights) or by a judicial determination that the father has abandoned the child and that an adoption is in the child's best interest.
Thus, even if he's not on the certificate, if he's presumed to be the father and if the child bears his last name, it would take a lawsuit against the father in order to change the child's last name......absent the father agreeing to it.
You could try, but it still requires a court action and naming the father as a defendant in the case.....and a court isn't likely to do this unless there is an adoption being sought.