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Can you help me identify the genes and chromasomes that

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control eye color? In particular, I...
Can you help me identify the genes and chromasomes that control eye color?
In particular, I am interested to identify the genes and chromasomes that might impact heterochromia.If i identify those genes and chromasomes, i might be able to have a doctor cousin help me analyze if any of us are affected (or share being affected) by those gene anomalies.
Submitted: 8 months ago.Category: Eye
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11/13/2017
Eye Doctor: Dr. K., MD replied 8 months ago
Dr. K.
Dr. K., MD
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Hello and welcome to Just Answer. I looking forward to assisting you with your question and providing excellent service. Are you talking about heterochromia in which one eye is a completely different color? If so its genetic and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern Also associated with Duane syndrome and hirschsprung disease
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
Hi:
Somehow I am not being notified when replies arise, so I am seeing your question onlyt now.I don't know if any of the following conditions are gentic, so I am am inquiring (if they are genetic and) to what gene/chromosme they would attach.I am looking for the gene/chromosome that would correspond to the following condiitons:1. ("brown") eyes that contain (lots of) flecks of different colors (my eyes) ;
2. ("blue") eyes that change color with one's attire ;
3. ('blue") eyes that can change color to really purple (with one's attire) ;
4. ("brown) eyes that have a dark ring (maybe a really dark blue) on the outer edge of the iris (my eyes).Thanks.
Cheers.
Eye Doctor: Dr. K., MD replied 8 months ago
None are genetic conditions and this is NOT heterochromia.
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
I guess I mis-understood the identification of the condition of Roszika Edle von Wertheimstein (possibly my relative) described in the following Wikipedia explanantion; see:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterochromia_iridumCentral heterochromia[edit]Example of central heterochromia showing a gold to blue iris
Central heterochromia is an eye condition where there are two colors in the same iris; the central (pupillary) zone of the iris is a different color than the mid-peripheral (ciliary) zone, with the true iris color being the outer color.[23]Eye color is determined primarily by the concentration and distribution of melanin within the iris tissues. Although the processes determining eye color are not fully understood, it is known that inherited eye color is determined by multiple genes. Environmental or acquired factors can alter these inherited traits.[4]The human iris can be seen in a number of various colors. There are three true colors in human eyes that determine the outward appearance: brown, yellow, and grey. The amount of each color an individual has determines the appearance of the eye color.[24]Eyes displaying central heterochromia are often referred to as "cat eyes" because of their multi-colored iris. Central heterochromia appears to be prevalent in irises containing low amounts of melanin.[25]A famous case of a person with central heterochromia was Baroness Rozsika Edle von Wertheimstein, whose daughter wrote: "She was a very beautiful woman... She had dark, dark brown eyes, but each eye had a purple ring to it, about a quarter of an inch of purple around these dark brown eyes."[26]
Eye Doctor: Dr. K., MD replied 8 months ago
Always need to bear in mind that Wikipedia is not a medical resource
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
It seems here are medical analyses that are different from yours. I will have to send the info in 2 page segments:http://www.actforlibraries.org/central-heterochromia/PaleontologyHealthOtherCentral Heterochromia – Causes, Types and StatisticsHealthcare, Medical ScienceWhat is Heterochromia?
The term “heterochromia” usually refers to the condition of having two different eye colors. The word is derived from the Greek words ‘heteros’ and ‘chroma’ which together implies “different color”. However, this definition is not only limited to eye colors but it also describes the differences in other areas such as hair and skin. The rarity of the condition results to the lack of specific data when it comes to the number affected around the world. There is an estimation that only 1% possess this globally.The other terms used to describe define the heterochromia of the eyes are heterochromia iridis and heterochromia iridium. Both iridis and iridium are Latin for iris. People who have heterochromia are referred to as those whose irises have an abundance or lack of melanin in one eye as compared to the other. The concentration of melanin is not equal; thus, giving the person what others might call an “exotic” look. The term can also be used to describe people who have one iris that has two different colors.Humans are not the only ones who have this kind of condition. Heterochromia is also seen in dogs and cats. Some breeds of cats such as Turkish Angora and Japanese Bobtail have complete heterochromia. This means that their eye colors will be completely different from each other.Though heterochromia might be easily mistaken as an eye disease, it is in fact benign. The condition doesn’t have a negative effect on the strength of one’s vision and genetically, it is not associated with other health problems. However, it is proposed for one to have an eye checkup once the person feels any kind of irritation.In ancient times, those who have heterochromia were regarded with a mysterious, other-worldly air. At present, both human beings and animals are lauded for this unique, mesmerizing quality. Popular figures like Mila Kunis, Jane Seymour, and Alice Eve possess this unique characteristic.In some cases, there is a confusion between heterochromia and iris nevus. The main difference between the two is that the nevus is usually color brown and the shape is round. It might be inferred that the nevus with a brown color contained in a differently-colored iris is under the division of partial heterochromia but the nevus as a cause is completely dissociated from heterochromia. Iris nevus can be malignant and a visit to the doctor is advised to monitor any growth.Types of HeterochromiaHeterochromia is classified into two major types:•Heterochromia Iridium/ Binocular Heterochromia/ Complete HeterochromiaTwo totally different eye colors characterize people who have complete heterochromia. This is very striking and apparent. There might be an abundance of melanin in one eye and a complete lack of it in the other. Many animals are also known to possess this.
•Heterochromia Iridis/ Sectorial HeterochromiaThis type can be further divided into two:– Central Heterochromia (also termed as ‘cat eyes’)Based from the term itself, this type of heterochromia refers to the inner (or central) iris having a different color from the outer. An example is a blue center with a gold outer color or border. This is where the term ‘cat eyes’ is derived. The border color is known to be the real eye color.– Peripheral HeterochromiaKnown as the rarest type of heterochromia, the peripheral heterochromia is characterized by a concentrated patch of color in a major area or smaller ones. This type doesn’t form an entire ring and this description is what differentiates it completely from the former one.Central Heterochromia StatisticsThis kind of heterochromia is the most widespread; hence, it is known that 1% have this globally.What Causes Heterochromia?The causes can be divided into congenital and acquired:
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
Congenital Causes
•Hyperchromic iris pigmentation – The presence of gold-tan or brown Lisch nodules is a characteristic of this pigmentation. This is known to be associated to Neurofibromatosis and von Recklinghausen disease. Hyper chromic iris pigmentation can occur as peripheral and in some cases, complete heterochromia. Neurofibromatosis on the other hand, is specifically connected to café-au-lait spots, axillary freckles and neurofibromas.
•Ocular melanosis/ melanocytosis (melanosis oculi) – This is classified under the peripheral or complete types because of the presence of pigmented lesions in the eye. Naevi, like the lesions can also be present in the uveal tract.
Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) – This is a result of the disruption in the iris pigment epithelium (IPE). The dispersion of granules to the anterior segment (specifically that of the iris) follows this. There will be a deposit of pigments. The development of glaucoma is possible to those who have this.
•Sturge-Weber syndrome – A gene mutation (GNAQ gene) is episodic in the event of the Sturge-Weber syndrome. The resulting conditions are port-wine stain and ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomas. Several ocular abnormalities such as glaucoma and iris heterochromia can also result from this.
•Hypochromic iris pigmentation– Simple congenital Heterochromia – The iris heterochromia is evident and it is not characterized by ocular or systemic anomalies.– Congenital Horner’s syndrome – This occurs when there is an injury to the fetal brain or sympathetic nervous system that affects the eye.– Waardenburg syndrome – The Waardenburg syndrome types I and II are linked to the central or complete heterochromia. This is also associated with the peripheral heterochromia and the pattern of inheritance follows the autosomal dominance.– Piebaldism – This is the same as Waardenburg syndrome. The only difference is that those who have piebaldism are not deaf.– Hirschsprung’s disease – Compared to the others, this is a common congenital condition. The lack of ganglia cells in the gastrointestinal tract is due to the complication in the intestine. This is often connected to bowel disorder.– Chediak-Higash syndrome – Infection is a related issue to this autosomal recessive syndrome. People who have this not only have hypopigmentation of the eyes but also of the hair and eyes. This is under hyperchromic heterochromia.– Tuberous sclerosis – The other term for this syndrome is Bourneville disease and is characterized by benign tumors in several organs of the body which includes the eye.
Other rare syndromes:
•Incontinentia pigmenti – This is also known as the Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome. This not only affects the eye but also the central nervous system, teeth, and hair.
•Parry-Romberg syndrome – Another term for this is progressive hemifacial atrophy. It is often associated with the malformation of facial tissues.
•Conradi syndrome (epiphyseal congenital dysplasia)
•Gaensslen syndrome (Familial haemolytic icterus)Acquired CausesHyperchromic causes
•Siderosis bulbi – This cause is related to iron deposition. The deposit is caused intrusive force that inevitably results to the formation of foreign bodies which contain iron.
•Trauma – An eye injury can be the cause of the iris’ hyperchromicity. This can happen before the age of seven.
•Iris hyperchromia resulting from medication – Central heterochromia is a result of the introduction of Prostaglandin eye drops. Some examples of these are latanoprost, isopropyl unoprostone, and travoprost. These medicines are used for glaucoma treatment. The continuous use leads to the formation and abundance of melanin production.
•Neoplasm of the iris – Segmental hyper pigmentations as a characteristic of sectoral heterochromia are evident.
•Rubeosis Iridis – The presence of the neovascularization developed on the stroma of the iris is caused by the unusual growth of the blood vessels on the anterior surface. It is a common quality of patients who have diabetes.
•Iris ectropion – This condition can be under that of the central and peripheral heterochromia. There is a covering of the iris’ posterior pigment epithelium by the anterior surface. It is made possible through the pupillary surface.Hypo chromic causes
•Inflammation of the iris – This is also called iritis/ anterior uveitis. Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis as a cause of the inflammation of the iris doesn’t display an evident ‘moth eaten’ appearance. Rather, the ocular symptoms are hardly discernible and only minimal. On the other hand, patents who have this depigmentation of the iris have a high risk of contracting glaucoma.
•Acquired Horner’s syndrome – As a congenital disease, there is a fewer frequency of occurrence compared to the others. This is present in both adults and children and is secondary to diseases like neuroblastoma, neurilemmoma, and cervical ganglioneuroma.
•Iris atrophy – Trauma is a cause of this condition.
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
8226;Iris atrophy – Trauma is a cause of this condition. There is a decrease in the pigmentation of the iris. Another known cause is Iridocorneal endothelium (ICE).
•Others – Other rare syndromes include Duane syndrome (Chronic iritis, Juvenile xanthogranuloma, Leukaemia and lymphoma) & Posner-Schlossman syndrome/ glaucomatocyclitic crisis.Related posts:Overview of Types of Melanocytic NeviRarest Eye ColorsBaby Eye Color ScienceOverview of Central Venous Lines Cvphttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/8590/heterochromia-iridishttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/8590/heterochromia-iridis/cases/40120Heterochromia iridisBack to List of Questions
QuestionListen
My eyes are a blueish grey on the outside, with a yellow/brown ring around the iris. I have always just called them hazel, but after reading a little bit I am curious if this could be heterochromia iridis. My younger sister's eyes are just like mine too.
Answer
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
Listen
The "yellow/brown ring" likely describes a "peripupillary ring" rather than heterochromia iridis. To know for certain, we recommend that you discuss this question with your healthcare provider.Peripupillary rings appear to be common in people with blue eyes. Peripupillary rings may range in color from brownish to yellowish. Factors (genetic and others) which dictate eye color are very complex, and the cause of peripupillary rings in not completely understood.[1]Last updated: 4/8/2015We hope this information is helpful. We strongly recommend you discuss this information with your doctor. If you still have questions, please contact us.Warm regards, *****Please see our Disclaimer.
References1.Mackey DA, Wilkinson CH, Kearns LS, Hewitt AW. Classification of iris colour: review and refinement of a classification schema. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2011 Jul;39(5):462-71; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21176045. Accessed 7/5/2013.Share this content:twitter-icon facebook-icon contact-iconhttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/8590/heterochromia-iridis/cases/31771Heterochromia iridisBack to List of Questions
QuestionListen
I have green eyes with a yellow/brown tint, but one fourth of my right eye is dark brown. I've been wanting to know more about heterochromia iridis: what is it and how rare is it?
Answer(continued)
Customer reply replied 8 months ago
ListenThe following information may help to address your question:
What is heterochromia iridis?
How rare is heterochromia iridis?What is heterochromia iridis?Heterochromia iridis is a condition characterized by abnormalities of the iris (the colored part of the eye). In people affected by complete heterochromia, the iris of one eye is a different color than the iris of the other eye. Segmental heterochromia occurs when areas of the same iris are different in color. Most cases of heterochromia iridis occur sporadically and are not associated with any other symptoms or problems. Rarely, heterochromia iridis is part of a congenital (present from birth) syndrome such as Waardenburg syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Parry-Romberg syndrome, or Horner's syndrome. Treatment for the condition generally targets the underlying cause and/or any associated symptoms (if present).[1][2]Last updated: 4/8/2015How rare is heterochromia iridis?Unfortunately, we are unable to find a prevalence estimate for heterochromia iridis.Last updated: 5/19/2016We hope this information is helpful. We strongly recommend you discuss this information with your doctor. If you still have questions, please contact us.Warm regards, *****Please see our Disclaimer.
References1.Ur Rehman H. Heterochromia. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2008; 179:447-448. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725617. Accessed 8/9/2011.
2.Mackey DA, Wilkinson CH, Kearns LS, Hewitt AW. Classification of iris colour: review and refinement of a classification schema. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2011 Jul;39(5):462-71; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6670/horners-syndromeHorner's syndromeOther Names:
Bernard-Horner Syndrome; Oculosympathetic PalsyGIN BannerGARD Information NavigatorTry our interactive tool for help finding information, services, experts, financial aid, and more!
SummaryListenHorner's syndrome is a rare condition characterized by miosis (constriction of the pupil), ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid), and anhidrosis (absence of sweating of the face).[1][2] It is caused by damage to the sympathetic nerves of the face. The underlying causes of Horner's syndrome vary greatly and may include a tumor, stroke, or other damage to a part of the brain called the brain stem; injury to the carotid artery; and trauma to the brachial plexus. In rare cases, Horner's syndrome is congenital (present from birth) and associated with a lack of pigmentation of the iris (colored part of the eye).[1][2][3] Treatment of Horner's syndrome depends on the underlying cause.[3]
Last updated: 1/3/2017
SymptomsListenSymptoms of Horner's syndrome typically include drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis), constriction of the pupil (miosis), sinking of the eyeball into the face, and decreased sweating on the affected side of the face (anhidrosis). These symptoms may vary and other symptoms may occur depending on the underlying cause of the condition.[1][2] Other symptoms which may be seen include the inability to completely close or open the eyelid, facial flushing, headaches, and pain.[2][3]Heterochromia iridium (i.e., a relative deficiency of pigment in the iris of affected side of the face) is usually present when the syndrome is congenital or caused by a lesion that has occurred before the age of 1-2 years of age.[3]Last updated: 1/3/2017The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) provides the following list of features that have been reported in people with this condition. Much of the information in the HPO comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. If available, the list includes a rough estimate of how common a feature is (its frequency). Frequencies are based on a specific study and may not be representative of all studies. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary for definitions of the terms below.Signs and Symptoms Approximate number of patients (when available)Help
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
Autosomal dominant inheritance -
Congenital Horner syndrome -
Deeply set eye -
Heterochromia iridis -
Ipsilateral lack of facial sweating -Last updated: 11/1/2017
CauseListenThere are many potential causes of Horner's syndrome. It can be caused by any interruption of the sympathetic nerve fibers, which start in the hypothalamus and run via the upper spinal cord near the carotid artery to the face. Sympathetic nerve fiber injuries can result from a stroke in the brainstem, injury to the carotid artery, a tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, migraines, and cluster headaches.[1]Horner's syndrome can also be caused by the following:[2][3] Neck trauma and neck surgery
A tumor in the brainstem or in the hypothalamus
Diseases that cause damage to the protective covering that surrounds nerve fibers (demyelinating disease)
Development of a fluid-filled cavity or cyst within the spinal cord (syringomyelia)
Arnold-Chiari malformationLast updated: 1/3/2017
DiagnosisListenAn ophthalmologist may confirm the diagnosis by special eye tests.[4] In addition, a careful neurological exam may be necessary to find the cause by determining which, if any, other parts of the nervous system are affected. Tests may include[1]: MRI of the head
Carotid ultrasound
Chest x-ray
CT scan of the chest
Blood tests
Angiogram
Eye drop testsLast updated: 1/3/2017
TreatmentListenTreatment depends on the underlying cause. There is no specific treatment for Horner's syndrome itself.[1] In many cases, no effective treatment is known.[3]Last updated: 1/3/2017Do you have updated information on this condition? Let us know.
ResearchListenResearch helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.Clinical Research ResourcesThe Centers for Mendelian Genomics program is working to discover the causes of rare genetic disorders. For more information about applying to the research study, please visit their website.
ClinicalTrials.gov lists trials that are studying or have studied Horner's syndrome. Click on the link to go to ClinicalTrials.gov to read descriptions of these studies.Please note: Studies listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website are listed for informational purposes only; being listed does not reflect an endorsement by GARD or the NIH. We strongly recommend that you talk with a trusted healthcare provider before choosing to participate in any clinical study.
OrganizationsListenSupport and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.Social Networking WebsitesVisit the Ross, Harlequin, Holmes-Adie and Horner's Syndrome group on Facebook.Do you know of an organization? Send us your suggestions.
Living WithListenLiving with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease.Genetics ResourcesTo find a medical professional who specializes in genetics, you can ask your doctor for a referral or you can search for one yourself. Online directories are provided by GeneTests, the American College of Medical Genetics, and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. If you need additional help, contact a GARD Information Specialist. You can also learn more about genetic consultations from Genetics Home Reference.
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Customer reply replied 8 months ago
ListenThese resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.Where to StartGenetics Home Reference contains information on Horner's syndrome. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.MayoClinic.com offers additional information about Horner syndrome. Click on the above link to access this information.
MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.In-Depth InformationMedscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Horner's syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
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GARD AnswersListenQuestions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know. Submit a new questionI have Horner's Syndrome which is believed to have been caused by a thoracic spinal tumor. I have all of the symptoms, except that of my eye retracting back into the socket. Will the syndrome keep progressing now that the tumor has been removed? Is that something I should be watching for? See answerMy son was recently diagnosed with Horner syndrome. Is it possible that he got this after having his neck and back aligned by a chiropractor? Also as a parent is there anything I should be concerned about? Do you recommend any restrictions to his playing high school sports? See answerMy friend was recently diagnosed with Horner syndrome. I am trying to find information and resources regarding this topic. See answerMy sister was recently diagnosed with Horner syndrome. Last year I was diagnosed with cluster headaches. Are these two condition related? See answerMy daughter sustained an injury which required her to be placed on an ECMO machine for several days. The machine damaged a nerve which caused Horner syndrome. Can you provide me with more information about this condition? See answerHave a question? Contact a GARD Information Specialist.
References1.Horner syndrome. MedlinePlus. 5/30/2016; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000708.htm.
2.Horner's syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2003; https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/horners-syndrome/.
3.Bardorf, CM. Horner Syndrome. Medscape. May 17, 2016; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1220091.
4.***** *****on. Horner syndrome: What causes it?. MayoClinic.com. May 06, 2014; http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/horner-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20034650.Horner's syndromeBack to List of Questions
QuestionListen
My sister was recently diagnosed with Horner syndrome. Last year I was diagnosed with cluster headaches. Are these two condition related?
AnswerListenThe following information may help to address your question:
What are cluster headaches?
What are the signs and symptoms of cluster headaches?
What causes cluster headaches?
Are cluster headaches related to Horner's syndrome?
How might cluster headaches be treated?What are cluster headaches?
Customer reply replied 8 months ago
What are cluster headaches?Cluster headaches are a form of headache notable for their extreme pain and their pattern of occurring in "clusters", usually at the same time(s) of the day for several weeks. The headaches are accompanied by autonomic symptoms, and some people experience restlessness and agitation.[1][2][3]A cluster headache begins with severe pain strictly on one side of the head, often behind or around one eye. In some people, it may be preceded by a migraine-like "aura." The pain usually peaks over the next 5 to 10 minutes, and then continues at that intensity for up to three hours before going away. Typical attacks may strike up to eight times a day and are relatively short-lived. On average, a cluster period lasts 6 to 12 weeks. Autonomic symptoms may include: conjunctival injection (bloodshot eyes), swelling under or around the eye, excessive tearing of the eyes, drooping of the eyelid, runny nose and/or nasal congestion, and forehead and facial sweating. These symptoms generally occur only during the pain attack and are on the same side as the headache pain.[1][2][3]Cluster headaches usually begin between the ages of 20 and 50, although they can start at any age. Males are more commonly affected than females. Treatment can be divided into acute therapy aimed at stopping symptoms once they have started and preventive therapy aimed at preventing recurrent attacks during the cluster period. [1][2][3]Last updated: 7/14/2015What are the signs and symptoms of cluster headaches?People with cluster headaches describe the pain as piercing and unbearable. The headaches occur in "clusters" usually at the same time of the day and night for several weeks. The symptoms are usually experienced on one side of the head, often behind or around the eye. The nose and the eye on the affected side of the head may also get red, swollen, and runny. Some people will experience nausea; restlessness; changes in blood pressure and heart rate; and agitation, or sensitivities to light, sound, or smell. Most affected individuals have one to three cluster headaches a day and two cluster periods a year, separated by periods of freedom from symptoms.A small group of people develop a chronic form of the disorder, characterized by bouts of cluster headaches that can go on for years with only brief periods (2 weeks or less) of remission.[1][2]Last updated: 4/1/2016What causes cluster headaches?Scientists aren't sure what causes cluster headaches, although there are currently several theories. The tendency of cluster headaches to occur during the same time(s) from day to day, and more often at night than during the daylight hours, suggests they could be caused by irregularities in the body’s circadian rhythms, which are controlled by the brain and a family of hormones that regulate the sleep-wake cycle. The development of cluster headaches may additionally be related to the body's release of histamine (chemical released in the body during an allergic response) or serotonin (chemical made by nerve cells). It is also possible that a problem in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus may be involved. [1][2]
Alcohol (especially red wine) provokes attacks in more than half of those with cluster headaches, but has no effect once the cluster period ends. Cluster headaches are also strongly associated with cigarette smoking.[2] Glare, stress, or certain foods may also trigger an attack.[1]An increased familial risk of these headaches suggests that there may be a genetic cause, though more studies are needed to confirm this suspicion and identify specific genetic changes associated.[2]Last updated: 4/1/2016Are cluster headaches related to Horner's syndrome?Horner's syndrome, a rare condition that affects the nerves to the eye and face, may present during a cluster headache attack. The condition is not present between episodes. However, this fleeting presentation can evolve into persistent Horner's syndrome.[1]Horner's syndrome can be caused by any interruption in the sympathetic nerve fibers, which start in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus and run to the face. Sympathetic nerve fiber injuries can result from migraine or cluster headaches.[4](continued)
Customer reply replied 8 months ago
Horner's syndrome can be caused by any interruption in the sympathetic nerve fibers, which start in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus and run to the face. Sympathetic nerve fiber injuries can result from migraine or cluster headaches.[4]To read more about the association between cluster headaches and Horner's syndrome, you can visit PubMed, a searchable database of medical literature. Information on finding an article and its title, authors, and publishing details is listed here. Some articles are available as a complete document, while information on other studies is available as a summary abstract. To obtain the full article, contact a medical/university library (or your local library for interlibrary loan), or order it online using the following link. Using "cluster headaches AND Horner syndrome" as your search term should locate articles. Click here to view a search.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMedThe National Library of Medicine (NLM) Web site has a page for locating libraries in your area that can provide direct access to these journals (print or online). The Web page also describes how you can get these articles through interlibrary loan and Loansome Doc (an NLM document-ordering service). You can access this page at the following link http://nnlm.gov/members/. You can also contact the NLM toll-free at(###) ###-####to locate libraries in your area.Last updated: 3/6/2012How might cluster headaches be treated?Treatment does not cure cluster headaches. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms. Spontaneous remission may occur, or treatment may be required to prevent headaches.[1]There are medications available to lessen the pain of a cluster headache and suppress future attacks. Oxygen inhalation and triptan drugs (such as those used to treat migraine) administered as a tablet, nasal spray, or injection can provide quick relief from acute cluster headache pain. Lidocaine nasal spray, which numbs the nose and nostrils, may also be effective. Ergotamine and corticosteroids such as prednisone and dexamethasone may be prescribed to break the cluster cycle and then tapered off once headaches end. Verapamil may be used preventively to decrease the frequency and pain level of attacks. Lithium, valproic acid, and topiramate are sometimes also used preventively.[2]More detailed information on medications can be found in the treatment and management sections of Medscape Reference's article on cluster headache.Last updated: 11/1/2013We hope this information is helpful. We strongly recommend you discuss this information with your doctor. If you still have questions, please contact us.Warm regards, *****Please see our Disclaimer.
References1.Campellone JV. Cluster headache. MedlinePlus. 11/05/2014; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000786.htm.
2.Headache: Hope Through Research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). 11/03/2015; https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Headache-Hope-Through-Research.
3.May A. Cluster headache: Epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. 05/22/2014; http://www.uptodate.com/contents/cluster-headache-epidemiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis.
4.Horner syndrome. MedlinePlus. 5/30/2016; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000708.htm.Horner's syndrome(continued)
Customer reply replied 8 months ago
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QuestionListen
My sister was recently diagnosed with Horner syndrome. Last year I was diagnosed with cluster headaches. Are these two condition related?
AnswerListenThe following information may help to address your question:
What are cluster headaches?
What are the signs and symptoms of cluster headaches?
What causes cluster headaches?
Are cluster headaches related to Horner's syndrome?
How might cluster headaches be treated?What are cluster headaches?Cluster headaches are a form of headache notable for their extreme pain and their pattern of occurring in "clusters", usually at the same time(s) of the day for several weeks. The headaches are accompanied by autonomic symptoms, and some people experience restlessness and agitation.[1][2][3]A cluster headache begins with severe pain strictly on one side of the head, often behind or around one eye. In some people, it may be preceded by a migraine-like "aura." The pain usually peaks over the next 5 to 10 minutes, and then continues at that intensity for up to three hours before going away. Typical attacks may strike up to eight times a day and are relatively short-lived. On average, a cluster period lasts 6 to 12 weeks. Autonomic symptoms may include: conjunctival injection (bloodshot eyes), swelling under or around the eye, excessive tearing of the eyes, drooping of the eyelid, runny nose and/or nasal congestion, and forehead and facial sweating. These symptoms generally occur only during the pain attack and are on the same side as the headache pain.[1][2][3]Cluster headaches usually begin between the ages of 20 and 50, although they can start at any age. Males are more commonly affected than females. Treatment can be divided into acute therapy aimed at stopping symptoms once they have started and preventive therapy aimed at preventing recurrent attacks during the cluster period. [1][2][3]Last updated: 7/14/2015What are the signs and symptoms of cluster headaches?People with cluster headaches describe the pain as piercing and unbearable. The headaches occur in "clusters" usually at the same time of the day and night for several weeks. The symptoms are usually experienced on one side of the head, often behind or around the eye. The nose and the eye on the affected side of the head may also get red, swollen, and runny. Some people will experience nausea; restlessness; changes in blood pressure and heart rate; and agitation, or sensitivities to light, sound, or smell. Most affected individuals have one to three cluster headaches a day and two cluster periods a year, separated by periods of freedom from symptoms.A small group of people develop a chronic form of the disorder, characterized by bouts of cluster headaches that can go on for years with only brief periods (2 weeks or less) of remission.[1][2]Last updated: 4/1/2016What causes cluster headaches?Scientists aren't sure what causes cluster headaches, although there are currently several theories. The tendency of cluster headaches to occur during the same time(s) from day to day, and more often at night than during the daylight hours, suggests they could be caused by irregularities in the body’s(continued)
Customer reply replied 8 months ago
This should be thellast pasted page, here)
Last updated: 4/1/2016What causes cluster headaches?Scientists aren't sure what causes cluster headaches, although there are currently several theories. The tendency of cluster headaches to occur during the same time(s) from day to day, and more often at night than during the daylight hours, suggests they could be caused by irregularities in the body’s circadian rhythms, which are controlled by the brain and a family of hormones that regulate the sleep-wake cycle. The development of cluster headaches may additionally be related to the body's release of histamine (chemical released in the body during an allergic response) or serotonin (chemical made by nerve cells). It is also possible that a problem in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus may be involved. [1][2]
Alcohol (especially red wine) provokes attacks in more than half of those with cluster headaches, but has no effect once the cluster period ends. Cluster headaches are also strongly associated with cigarette smoking.[2] Glare, stress, or certain foods may also trigger an attack.[1]An increased familial risk of these headaches suggests that there may be a genetic cause, though more studies are needed to confirm this suspicion and identify specific genetic changes associated.[2]Last updated: 4/1/2016Are cluster headaches related to Horner's syndrome?Horner's syndrome, a rare condition that affects the nerves to the eye and face, may present during a cluster headache attack. The condition is not present between episodes. However, this fleeting presentation can evolve into persistent Horner's syndrome.[1]Horner's syndrome can be caused by any interruption in the sympathetic nerve fibers, which start in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus and run to the face. Sympathetic nerve fiber injuries can result from migraine or cluster headaches.[4]To read more about the association between cluster headaches and Horner's syndrome, you can visit PubMed, a searchable database of medical literature. Information on finding an article and its title, authors, and publishing details is listed here. Some articles are available as a complete document, while information on other studies is available as a summary abstract. To obtain the full article, contact a medical/university library (or your local library for interlibrary loan), or order it online using the following link. Using "cluster headaches AND Horner syndrome" as your search term should locate articles. Click here to view a search.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMedThe National Library of Medicine (NLM) Web site has a page for locating libraries in your area that can provide direct access to these journals (print or online). The Web page also describes how you can get these articles through interlibrary loan and Loansome Doc (an NLM document-ordering service). You can access this page at the following link http://nnlm.gov/members/. You can also contact the NLM toll-free at(###) ###-####to locate libraries in your area.Last updated: 3/6/2012How might cluster headaches be treated?Treatment does not cure cluster headaches. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms. Spontaneous remission may occur, or treatment may be required to prevent headaches.[1]There are medications available to lessen the pain of a cluster headache and suppress future attacks. Oxygen inhalation and triptan drugs (such as those used to treat migraine) administered as a tablet, nasal spray, or injection can provide quick relief from acute cluster headache pain. Lidocaine nasal spray, which numbs the nose and nostrils, may also be effective. Ergotamine and corticosteroids such as prednisone and dexamethasone may be prescribed to break the cluster cycle and then tapered off once headaches end. Verapamil may be used preventively to decrease the frequency and pain level of attacks. Lithium, valproic acid, and topiramate are sometimes also used preventively.[2]More detailed information on medications can be found in the treatment and management sections of Medscape Reference's article on cluster headache.Last updated: 11/1/2013We hope this information is helpful. We strongly recommend you discuss this information with your doctor. If you still have questions, please contact us.Warm regards, *****Please see our Disclaimer.
References1.Campellone JV. Cluster headache. MedlinePlus. 11/05/2014; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000786.htm.
2.Headache: Hope Through Research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). 11/03/2015; https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Headache-Hope-Through-Research.
3.May A. Cluster headache: Epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. 05/22/2014; http://www.uptodate.com/contents/cluster-headache-epidemiology-clinical-features-and-diagn
Customer reply replied 8 months ago
References1.Campellone JV. Cluster headache. MedlinePlus. 11/05/2014; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000786.htm.
2.Headache: Hope Through Research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). 11/03/2015; https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Headache-Hope-Through-Research.
3.May A. Cluster headache: Epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. 05/22/2014; http://www.uptodate.com/contents/cluster-headache-epidemiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis.
4.Horner syndrome. MedlinePlus. 5/30/2016; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000708.htm.
Customer reply replied 8 months ago
In the case of one female friend, her mother has had the issue of her eye "sinking" and her father has cluster headaches.The feiend has had multicoloreed eyes since birth.Based on what I have read, it seems there is reasonable information to probe/inquire further along the genetic path.Thank you.
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