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Keratoconus is a type of corneal disease in which the shape of cornea is more conical than normal. This causes a refractive error which could be either astigmatism or myopic astigmatism. Yes, it can be detected during a routine eye exam and is suspected when there is blurred vision or shape of cornea appears more conical or abnormally high K readings on keratometry.
It can be treated for its refractive error by various methods and the process can be arrested by cross linking method.