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Lisa L. Kawecki
Lisa L. Kawecki, Certified Teacher
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Experience:  BA in Eng. & Edu.; 15 yrs. Teaching Exp.
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For Lisa L In a well-written, 5-7 page essay, please address

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For Lisa L In a well-written, 5-7 page essay, please address the following:

Discuss the ways in which a company's leadership and culture influence its business ethics.

Keys to the Assignment:

Define "organizational culture." Please be very specific (and be sure that you provide references for your description of culture).
Evaluate Enron's sense of business ethics and business operations in the context of the organization’s culture? Specifically, what went wrong?
What should have been the role and responsibility of company leadership (the Board of Directors, the CEO Ken Lay and others)? In what ways did key executive players (e.g., Lay, Skilling, and Fastow) work to negatively reshape the culture, and with what adverse consequences?
How might Human Resource Management (HRM) have played a central role in setting the "moral compass" at Enron, helping to form and shape the organizational culture (perhaps avoiding the Enron debacle altogether)?
Assignment Expectations:

Your paper will be evaluated on the following seven criteria:

Precision - Does the paper address the question(s) or task(s)?
Breadth - Is the full breadth of the subject (i.e., the Keys to the Assignment) addressed?
Depth - Does the paper address the topic in sufficient depth and include the background reading and other background resources as references?
Critical thinking - Is the subject thought about critically (i.e., accurately, logically, relevantly, and precisely)?
Clarity - Is the writing clear and are the concepts articulated properly? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of responding to the questions or are points conveyed through excessive use of quotations?
Organization - Is the paper well written? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for graduate-level work? Are headings included in all papers longer than two pages?
Referencing (citations and references) - Does the paper include citations and quotation marks where appropriate? Are the references from the background reading and assignment present and properly cited? Are all the references listed in the bibliography present and referred to via citation?

Madsen, S. & Vance, C. (2009). Unlearned lessons from the past: an insider's view of Enron's downfall. Corporate Governance, 9(2), 216-227. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Free, C., Macintosh, N., & Stein, M. (2007). Management Controls: The Organizational Fraud Triangle of Leadership, Culture and Control in Enron. Ivey Business Journal Online. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Meisinger, S. R. (2012). Examining organizational ethics. Human Resource Executive Online (June, 2011). Retrieved on November 19, 2012 from:
Hi, I'm Josie and I am a moderator for this topic. I sent your requested professional a message to follow up with you here, when she is back online.

If I can help further, please let me know. Thank you for your continued patience.
Hello Jennifer,

Thank you for requesting me, as I am always happy to work with you.

Please let me know when you need this.

I am logging off for the evening, I will talk with you tomorrow .
Customer: replied 4 years ago.



I really need it by Sunday if possible. Is that workable?



Good morning Jennfier,

The only way that I would be able to have this for you by Sunday is if I worked on it for the better part of Saturday. I was not really planning on working on line Saturday.

I do enjoy working with you, so yes, I will do this for you. If you are able to pay a small bonus I would appreciate that.

Customer: replied 4 years ago.



Small bonus is not a problem. Say 40?



That is wonderful, thank you kindlyKiss

One quick question, so far I haven't been able to retireve the top two references you posted. I have others, just letting you know.

Have a great day,
Customer: replied 4 years ago.

Lisa, you are awesome! Here are the two articles I think that were needed.


Let me know if you need anything else


Attachment: 2013-09-13_145617_proquestdocuments-2013-09-131.pdf

Attachment: 2013-09-13_145644_proquestdocuments-2013-09-132.pdf



Ahh, Jennifer this helps so much!!!!!! Thank you!!

I am in the middle of a long paper for one of my other regular customers, so I need to go.

I will work on this tomorrow and have it posted for you by the end of the afternoon tomorrow.

Hi Jennifer,

Happy Saturday to youSmile

I just wanted you to know that I have been working on your paper for the past few hours and I will have it finished and posted for you in an hour or two.

Good afternoon Jennifer,

Thank you for the opportunity to be able to work with you once again. I have the following paper that I wrote saved in my files for you. It is as requested, 5-7 pages, 12 font, double spaced, with references.

Organizational Leadership and Culture in Relation To Business Ethics

An organization’s sense of business ethics and their operations in the context of the organization’s culture is an essential part of what will ultimately establish either a successful or unsuccessful company. The organizational culture of a company, in many cases, can be the factor that will help a business to grow, be profitable and build a solid relationship within the business community. But, when an organization, has a negative organizational culture and poor business ethics this can, and in many cases, leads to the downfall of the company. Regardless of the size of an organization from quite small to global it must operate within the bounds of practicing good business ethics.

In order for an organization, and by extention, each of the individuals that work at the organization to adhere to good business ethics in the context of the organization’s culture, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of what exactly is organizational culture. One of the more common and comprehensive ways to explain what organizational culture is would be to state that, “Organizational culture is the behavior of humans who are part of an organization and he meanings that the people attach to their actions. Culture includes the organization values, vision, norms, working language, systems, symbols, beliefs and habits. It also includes the patterns of such collective behaviors and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling.”( Cameron )The organization culture of a business not only effects the individuals that work within the organization, it also affects their relationships with clients, stakeholders, and other businesses. Executives play a larger role in defining the organizational culture of their business through their actions, leadership and management styles. Even though executives have a larger role in establishing and maintaining organizational culture, all employees do contribute to the organizational culture of where they work.

One company that has became known for their complete lack of good business ethics and a poor organizational culture was Enron. This company came together as a corporation in 1985 as the result of a merger between InterNorth Corporation and Houston Natural Gas. At the time, InterNorth ran one of the largest natural gas pipeline systems in North America. When the two companies merged the company’s original name was HNG InterNorth. The man who was the president of InterNorth, Sam Segnar, then became the president of the new entity.

Enron’s sense of business ethics and business operations in the context of the organizational culture began to take a negative turn from the moment that Sam Segnar took control. The man that was the chairman of InterNorth Corporation for many years was Willis Straus. Although he was a powerful man and an astute business man he valued personal relationships between all employees from lower level employees to executives. For example, the top floor of the InterNorth building in downtown Omaha there was a dining room that was for all employees. Willis Straus was known for taking time out during his meals or meetings in the dinning room to go to each table and talk to the employees. He was respected for this type of action and in return his employees would try even harder to prove their loyalty to the company. This all changed when Sam Segnar took over. He turned the top floor of the InterNorth building, that was previously a dining, into a suite that was only for executives. He then spent extensive amounts of money on furniture for these suites, which included a massive suite for himself, complete with his own fireplace. He was instantly disliked by the majority of the employees. Segnar did not value personal relationships nor did he have any interest in speaking with lower level employees. The whole organizational culture began to quickly change for the negative.

Another man that contributed to poor business ethics at Enron was Kenneth Lay. He was the Chairman of Houston Natural Gas and convinced Sam Segnar to combine the board of directors, which usually is not done, so that he could stay on with the company after the merger. With a short amount of time, Kay became the chairman of the board. He was a shrewd man, intelligent and thought of himself first.

Jeff Skilling was another man that had a major part in the organization culture shift that occurred at Enron. He reported directly to Kenneth Lay. Both Lay and Skilling decided to “deregulate the industry and let the price of natural gas float with the market. His business vision was that Enron would be the first company that really got this bandwagon while everyone else was fighting deregulation.”(Madsen)

There were a few key ways in which key executives, such as Lay and Skilling worked to not only negatively reshape the culture of Enron but also produce adverse consequences. The first way this occurred was that all new employees that were hired were not allowed to be creative or share ideas. They were were rewarded for making contracts and delivering. A second significant way that key executives negatively reshaped the organizational culture at Enron was with their reward system. The executives removed all caps on compensation as a way to make the environment more competitive. The employees would work extra long days, make profits in the millions and then quit. The average tenure was eighteen months. It was a competitive, money driven environment. A third way that executives negatively changed the organizational environment was that they initiated a model of ranking employees. This meant that the bottom percentage of employees in perceived performance would be fired.

Rather than initiating the above programs at Enron, the key role and responsibility for the Board of Directors, the CEO Ken Lay, and other executives should have been to continue with the programs that had previously been implemented that not only worked, but, more importantly, fostered positive business ethics and business operations. Specifically, key personal in Human Resources, such as Alan P. Warnick, who was the Vice President of Organization Development and Training for Enron Operations, stated that in the early years, prio to the merger, there would be weekly meetings were the heads of departments wer encouraged to speak up if they experienced a problem and were also encouraged to ask for advice or ideas to solve a problem. He stated that this fostered a positive working environment. The board of directors and the CEO should have allowed the employees to work together rather than taking away their ability for sharing ideas and implementing a reward system that changed the organizational culture from one of a working unit to individualism and cut throat tactics in order to receive the bigger bonus.

Human Resource Management could have played a central role in setting the “moral compass” at Enron, helping to form and shape the organizational culture by creating a better sense of accountability in the culture with demanding a larger role in the decision making when it came to hiring new employees. In addition, Human Resource Management should have sought assistance from government officials and lawyers when Jeff Skilling sought SEC approval for his changes in the vision of the industry. At this point there was a total lack of accountability and even though the line between legal and illegal was not “technically” crossed, Human Resource Management could have took action at this point. During this time period, many employees at Enron began to quite because they knew that things were taking a drastic turn for the worst. Unfortunately, there were threats of being fired if anyone spoke up. Resigning appeared to be the only answer. However, even in these circumstances, if key personal in Human Resource Management sought help and advice from others outside the company, they could have stopped things from progressing to the ultimate end of Enron. Individuals within the Human Resource Management Department should not have compromised their moral values under the pressure of competition, acceptance or fear.

“An ethical culture is developed and maintained through both words and actions of its leaders.”(Madsen) Enron’s sense of business ethics and business operations in the context of its‘ organizational culture changed from one where emplyees were encouraged to share, talk, and work as a cohesive group to one were profits, performance and individualism was top priority. “On December 2, 2001, Enron, with assets of $63.4 billion, became the largest corporate bankruptcy in U.S. History, triggering a collapse in investor confidence and opening a Pandora’s Box of issues relating to corporate governance, accounting and regulation.”(Free). This is proof that regardless of profit margins, innovations, and goals for the future, there are certain basic principals that apply for an organization to be successful. First, there must be a positive set of business ethics within the organization that is followed by all, from lower level management to executives. Second, the organizational culture of a business can determine the ultimate prosperity or demise of the organization. Good, sound moral ethics must be in actions as well as in words.


1. Cameron, Kim S. And Robert E. Quinn. “Diagnosing and Changing Organization Culture:Based on the Competing Values Framework.” Jossey-Bass Publishers, 3rd edition. March 29, 2011.

2. Madsen, S. & Vance, C. “Unlearned Lessons From The Past: An Insider's View of Enron's Downfall.” Corporate Governance, 9(2), 216-227. Retrieved from ProQuest. (2009)

3. Free, C., Macintosh, N., & Stein, M. “Management Controls: The Organizational Fraud Triangle of Leadership, Culture and Control in Enron.” Ivey Business Journal Online. Retrieved from ProQuest. (2007)

4. Meisinger, S. R. “Examining Organizational Ethics. Human Resource Executive Online (June, 2011). Retrieved on November 19, 2012 from:

It was a pleasure to be able to work with you again.

Please remember to click one of the top three icons, as that is the only way that I get paid. In addition, the bonus that was discussed would be greatly appreciate

I look forward to working with you on future assignments. To request me, simply type, “For Lisa K.” before the question.

Have a great weekend,
Lisa L. Kawecki, Certified Teacher
Category: Essays
Satisfied Customers: 736
Experience: BA in Eng. & Edu.; 15 yrs. Teaching Exp.
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