Employment Law Questions? Ask an Employment Lawyer.
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If the statements were false, then you could file a civil lawsuit for slander/libel and you could seek an injunction against the person. Is that the type of thing you were asking about? If so, I can go into more detail, I just want to be certain that's what you're wanting to know about.
You can pursue a slander/libel case against the college as well but it's going to be hard to win because all they have to do is point the finger at the person that actually said it.
As you mention, CA is an employment at will state which means that it is almost impossible to win a wrongful termination case. The employer is not under a duty to investigate to any certain degree and is allowed to be completely wrong in their reason for your termination.
Your best case is the one I first set out, suing the supervisor for slander/libel and then trying to get it applied to the school as well since he was acting in a supervisory capacity. If you can get the facts developed sufficiently to win that case then you may be able to go against the employer on a wrongful termination for a violation of "public policy". That is one of the exemptions to employment at will and it is not defined very well so it can be used in a lot of different situations. I can imagine the CA courts stating that firing you for being the victim of slander by a supervisor being against public policy but it would have to be developed just right.