Employment Law Questions? Ask an Employment Lawyer.
I am sorry to hear about your situation. No your employer should not be sharing your personal information especially medical information with any of your colleagues. This would be a violation of HIPPA. However it's hard to say that you have a lawsuit because you didn't actually suffer any damage. The HIPAA laws only impose certain fines not necessary create legal claims.
At this point I would simply suggest filing a complaint with your HR department.