Hello and welcome to Just Answer. My name is ***** ***** I will be happy to assist you with your electrical question.
1) Unfortunately, I've never seen a ceiling fan manufacturer that provides an internal schematic wiring diagram of a ceiling fan and the pull chain switches or speed capacitor. Doesn't matter if the fan is an expensive model or a cheap model. The manufacturers never provide this information.
2) Due to this reason, it is imperative to always label all wires whenever replacing a fan pull chain switch and/or a capacitor prior to removing these components.
3) Also keep in mind that if the pull chain switch was not an exact replacement switch as the original switch, the fan speeds may not work at all or only certain speeds will work correctly. If you purchased a replacement pull chain switch from one of the big box home improvement stores (Depot or Lowe's), there is a good chance that the replacement switch may not work as the stores only sell a very generic replacement switch which does not work on all fans.
4) Another important item is the capacitor. A replacement capacitor must be of the same micro-farad value (uF) as the original cap. If the replacement cap value is smaller or greater in terms of uF of the original cap, the 3 fan speeds may not work at all.
5) Hampton Bay is one of the cheapest manufactured ceiling fans sold in the marketplace. Unfortunately, their tech support is among the worst in the industry. The HB fans are manufactured in China by 3 different companies and the manufacturers do not use identical parts or the same color coded wires within the same fan model. Thus, the HB models have no consistent manufacturing methods even within identical fan model numbers.
6) With the above in mind, I suggest that you contact eceilingfans.com shown below in the link and perhaps they may have a schematic drawing available so they can walk you thru as to how to re-connect the fan. If eceilingfans is not able to assist you, I suggest to trash the fan and purchase a replacement model, preferably a Hunter or a Casablanca fan brand.
7) You already mentioned that you have tried all of the possible wiring combinations and to no avail. About the only wire that most fan manufacturers use in common on a pull chain switch is the black wire which is usually the hot wire or "L" connection. Unfortunately, there is no commonality or no standard color code on any of the other remaining wire colors.
8) I installed a quantity of (4) four Hunter ceiling fans in my own home in 1987 where all 4 fans run 7x24x365. I never turn them OFF. I've also installed hundreds of Hunter ceiling fans throughout my 29 years as an electrical contractor and have never had any customer complaints. Thus, the Hunter brand speaks for itself.