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Hi, i`m Richard, a Veterinarian from the UK. Hopefully I can help today.
Am I correct in understanding he ate a 5000IU Vitamin D capsule?
Vitamin D toxicity can be very serious and that would be a significant amount for a small dog to ingest. As the ingestion was several hours ago, there is little benefit to inducing vomiting at this stage. I would recommend having him checked over by your vet as vitamin D toxicity can have serious implications for your dog.
Signs that the overdose may cause include vomiting, depression, increased thirst and urination, blood in vomit, dark tarry feces, bleeding disorders, constipation, abdominal pain and muscular tremors. High levels of vitamin D can affect blood calcium levels which are important in regulating the contraction of the heart, so low heart rate (bradycardia) can be serious also.
I would recommend you get him checked over by your vet.