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Hi there and thank you for your question. My name is ***** ***** I am a licensed, internship-trained veterinarian with 10 years experience in general medicine and emergency and critical care medicine and I would be happy to assist you. Please be patient as there may be slight delays in responses as I research your pet's issue.
Did the vet stick a needle in it to see what kind of tumor it is (mast cell, lymphoma, etc)? How long has the mass been there? Did your vet start any oral medications?
A picture won't tell me much because different tumors can look like anything. But I would really recommend having a needle stuck in it and the cells looked at under a microscope, because if this is a mast cell tumor, your dog should be on steroids and benadryl for a week before surgery. I definitely agree that it needs to be removed surgically, but it would be best to get as aspirate first to know more about what we are dealing with so that it is treated appropriately before surgery. I would ask your vet to do a "fine needle aspirate", and if it is a mast cell tumor I recommend steroids and benadryl prior to surgery.
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At this age, the most likely cause of this is cancer of some sort. Some of these cancers are completely cured once it is removed, as long as it has not spread. For that reason, the sooner the better! Risks include spread of cancer, pain, mass growing too large to remove. I would remove it even if it was not ulcerated and even if it never bothered the dog at all. Hope this helps.