Hello and thank you for asking your question. My name isXXXXX will try to help.
No, if you vaccinate a pet after the fact, it would not be protected against rabies until the pet had time to build antibodies against the vaccine. It usually takes 7-10 days, after the vaccine is given, for the pet to be protected.
That being said, I would take him to the vet so he can get a rabies vaccine to prevent him from getting rabies in the future.
Also, raccoons have pretty dirty mouths so it would be a good idea for him to be started on a course of antibiotics to prevent the wounds from becoming infected.
You can contact animal control, and they can try to trap the raccoon and either move it to somewhere safe or send it off for rabies testing.
In most cases, where there is a possible rabies exposure, your dog would need to be quarantined for 10 days. If he has rabies, it should develop within 10 days.
I hope this helps.
If you have additional questions, let me know and click reply.