Can you let me know when your online/available please. My sister has another question for you regarding her canine

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Customer: Hi Dana,

Can you let me know when your online/available please.

My sister has another question for you regarding her canine studies course.

Many Thanks

Blessed Be

Bronwen
Answered by MD for Pets in 9 hours 12 years ago
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MD for Pets
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Specialities include: Dog Veterinary, Dog Medicine, Dog Diseases, Small Animal Veterinary

Hi Bronwen!
I was working overnights last night, so I was asleep all day, which is why I am just getting back to you now, so I hope I didn't miss the window to help you and your sister.
I will be around, and keep a very close eye on my email, so if you reply to this, I will do my best to answer ASAP!
Thanks, XXXXX XXXXX hope all is well,
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

Thanks for getting back to us. It's no problem for us to wait a bit for your reply.

We do understand that this will take time due to your other commitments(work etc.) and the fact that we are in the UK so there is a time difference to consider.

Anyway Anna's Questions are as follows:

1) What is dominance aggression?


2) How to deal with the following different types of aggression:

(a) Senile aggression
(b) Defensive aggression
(c) Genetic aggression
(d) Redirected aggression
(e) Sex-related aggression
(f) Dominance aggression

The problem Anna is having is when she tries to search the internet for information to answer these questions all she gets is 'Seek Expert help from a Canine Behaviourist or Veterinarian'.

This doesn't help her at all as she is trying to study to become one of these 'Experts' herself.

We hope you can help in terms that are clear and straightforward for Anna to understand(she has dyslexia).

Many Thanks

Blessed Be

Bronwen

Hi Bronwne & Anna-

I hope all is going well with school – these are definitely some tough questions!

I had to pull out my animal behavior notes and text to help with some of these (since it is not something I deal with every day in emergency & critical care!), so please let me know if you need more information or clarification. I put my answers in italics.

1) What is dominance aggression?


Dominance related aggression is now commonly referred to as “owner directed aggression” and “conflict-related aggression”. However, the definition varies greatly among behaviorists and clinics. Aggression may result when owners threaten or challenge the dog’s social status in situations of competition over resources or there is a perceived threat to the dog’s rank within the family dominance hierarchy. “Resources” are a broad term used to define things like food, bedding, toys, or preferred people within the family. Conflict related aggression tends to occur more often in males, often between the ages of 1-3 years old, and it is seen in all purebred and mixed breed dogs. It can be seen when affected dogs are in possession of a “special” object (foods, toys, etc), when they are disturbed from a bed or other resting area, and when there is interaction with their preferred person by another.


2) How to deal with the following different types of aggression:

The most important part of treating all forms of canine aggression is to rule out an underlying medical condition as the cause of aggression. A complete medical history, physical examination, and if indicated, bloodwork and urinalysis should be performed to rule out underlying diseases or disorders.

For all types of aggression, the specific circumstances under which aggression is elicited should be avoided. In addition, physical corrections and punishments should also be avoided. Dogs should always be very strictly supervised when around young children. Behavioral modification, and medication, may also be helpful.

(a) Senile aggression

Senile aggression may be part of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS), which is defined as geriatric onset behavioral problems not exclusively attributable to a general medical condition. The exact incidence of CDS in older dogs is unknown, though some believe some or all components are quite common. If aggression is part of CDS, it is important to recognize that this disease cannot be cured, though the clinical signs can be controlled. Environmental modification to prevent dogs from getting into areas where they become upset, confused, or aggressive can help. To help curb aggressive behavior, rewards (food, toys, play, affection) should be given to dogs when they are not aggressive and to help turn a situation which can induce aggression into a more positive event.

A medication called selegiline HCl (Anipryl) has been approved to treat dogs with signs of CDS, which is thought to help by increasing the amount of dopamine levels in the central nervous system.


(b) Defensive aggression

Defensive, or fear-related, aggression is seen when fearful dogs try to avoid the source of fear, and then bite or show other forms of aggression when they are confronted. This type of behavior can be displayed toward both familiar and unfamiliar people. It can be seen in any breed, sex, or age, though some breeds (such as border collies and German Shepherd dogs are more commonly affected). This type of aggression is best treated as a form of anxiety disorder, so avoiding aggression inducing event, and desensitizing dogs to these events can help. In addition, anxiolytic drugs, such as diazepam, alprazolman, chlorazepate, and buspirone can help.

Another definition for dogs with defensive aggression are those that do not back down to threats against them, such as police dogs who continue to attack even when they are being injured or harmed. This is how defensive aggression is defined for police and protection dogs. There is no treatment per se when used in this context, since this would be a very desirable trait for these dogs.


(c) Genetic aggression

I was unable to find any treatment options for genetic aggression, as it seems as if this is a form of aggression with a documented genetic basis, and therefore the dog should be treated for the specific type of aggression via behavioral therapy and or medications.. The parents of the dog, and the affected dog (as well as all littermates) should not be bred to prevent further propagation of this trait.


(d) Redirected aggression

Redirected aggression is best managed with the use of a harness, leash, and often a head harness (also called a gentle leader) to provide good control of the dog’s head in situations which induce aggression to prevent biting. Until training is complete, the situations which cause redirected aggression should be avoided and the dogs or people who are the subject of this type of aggression should be kept safe. The dog should also be desensitized to these situations through controlled encounters with the conditions that induce aggression. The dog should also have his/her attention redirected during the desensitization training, by using a toy or food to reward non-aggressive behavior. Anxiolytic drugs and/or anti-depressant drugs can also be used in combination with behavioral modification.

(e) Sex-related aggression

Female to female fighting is worse than male to male fighting which is worse than female to male fighting, which is worse than male to female fighting. Ways to deal with sex related aggression include castration and spaying, to decrease hormonal influences on behavior, avoid known circumstances which lead to fighting, never give preferential attention, and never let dogs “fight it out”, as dog fights can lead to serious injury and death. Injury should be prevented, and social harmony maintained, by separating the dogs (crating), muzzling if needed, gentle leaders, and indoor leashes. Chronic separation may be needed. When the fight is between a more and less mature dog, the dominance of the mature dog should be reinforced. Relaxation and social skills (obedience) should be taught to each dog separately. Counter-conditioning (rewards) and desensitization should be used to get dogs acclimated to and tolerate each other’s presence. If fighting occurs when an owner returns home, excited greetings should be avoided, and instead both dogs should be ignored when the owner returns. If there is fighting over toys, bones, etc., these should be removed. If rough play or running in closed areas (such as hallways) are triggers, these situations should be avoided. In addition, treatment with antidepressant and/or anxiolytic medications for one or both dogs may be helpful, but should only be used in combination with behavioral therapy..


(f) Dominance aggression

Since dominance related aggression is largely genetic, it cannot be cured. The owner should gain control of the dog’s behavior through gaining control of the dog’s attention (petting, speaking to dog), teaching the dog to look at the owner on cue, and teaching the dog to sit or lie down before any positive event (food, walks, play) so that this behavior can be used to have control of the dog. Aggressive dogs should not be allowed to jump onto people and they should not be permitted on furniture or laps. The only time they should receive attention is if they are sitting or laying down and pawing or nudging for attention should be ignored. Dogs should also have a “safe haven” such as a crate, where they can go (but not be punished) during high risk situations. Obedience training, and clicker training, can also be very helpful. Once there is control of the dog’s behavior, desensitization and counter-sensitization techniques can be used. Anxiolytics and anti-depressants can also be helpful, but only as adjuncts with behavioral therapy.

I hope this was the information you needed! Please let me know if I can help in any other way.

Dana

Customer
Hi Dana,

Sorry for the delay.

Anna says 'Thank you very much, that's a great help.'

Blessed Be

Bronwen
Bronwen & Anna -
You are very welcome -- I am glad it was helpful!
Thanks for the accept and bonus, it is much appreciated.
Take care, and let me know if you need more help in the future!
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

When you are available/online Anna needs a bit more help please.

She has to write a 5000 word thesis on the following subject:

Behavioural problems in the domestic dog and breed dispositions - a study on links between behaviour and genes.

She is wondering if you could give her some pointers as to what it means etc., and how best to start her thesis of.

Some suggestions as to the wording of the first paragraph - that kind of thing.

Many Thanks and Blessed Be

Bronwen
Hey Bronwen-

I was just thinking of you guys not too long ago and wondering how things were going!

I am off tomorrow, so I can probably sit down for a little bit and see what I can come up with to help with the writing process.

I will respond back to this post once I have some more info!

Take care,

Dana
Customer
Great!

Thanks very much Dana.

Blessed Be

Bronwen
You are very welcome!

Talk to you soon.
Customer
Hi Dana,

Anna is just wondering if you have managed to do anything for her yet?

Blessed Be

Bronwen
Hey Bronwen-
Thanks for checking up on me! I have been working every overnight with some really sick patients in the ICU, so my life for the last week has been work and sleep. However, they are my favorite patients, so I can't complain!
I did some searching about the genetic links with aggression. There isn't a lot of concrete evidence, so I need to look more. I don't have anything on paper just yet. I hope to be able to work on it more in the next day or so. Sorry for the delay.
When does she need the paper finished by? I have some information for her, but not enough to yet start a paper, so if she needs to ask another expert on here ASAP, I completely understand. I like this stuff, so I am glad to help, and will do everything I can to get her information in the next day......if things are stable in the ICU tonight, I can even work on it then!
I hope this is ok for her, and that I am not adding to her stress level.
Just let me know what is best for her, and I will do my best to get things together ASAP.
Thanks again,
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

Anna said don't panic too much she still has quite a bit of time yet(she is making a very good effort at trying to research this herself as well).

We both hope that your patients all get well soon.

Try not to overwork yourself too much either.

Blessed Be

Bronwen
Hey Bronwen-
Sorry for the delay. The website closed our question, and it took them quite some time after I asked them to re-open it to actually do it. I couldn't respond until they re-opened the question since I had no other way to contact you.
I am making this post just to keep it open and will add another to give you the information I found about genetics and aggression for Anna's paper.
Happy New Year to you and Anna! Hope you had a great holiday.
DanaMD for Pets40182.788084838
Customer
Hi Dana,

Just a quick reply (to keep post active) and a question from Anna.

She is wondering how you are doing with this - the deadline for her thesis has been brought forward to 2nd February.

She has done a little research herself and would like to know if you would be willing to have a look at what she has done so far and comment on it.

If you are I will upload it via Mediafire if thats ok?

Blessed Be

Bronwen

P.S you can also contact us via email address [email protected] if there are any problems with the website. You will still get paid for your work - I will just send you a Paypal payment.40183.6225330671
Bronwen-
That sounds great!
I have a bunch of journal articles on the heritability of aggression in dogs in addition to what I have written so far. If you upload it and give me a link, I will have a look and add in additional information and the references I have, then reload it to the website.
Look forward to seeing what she has written since there isn't much information out there!
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

This is what Anna has managed to do so far.

http://www.mediafire.com/file/mylzlmhzmmm/Thesis behavioural problem and breed dispostions.docx

What do you think.?

Blessed Be

Bronwen

P.S. Please bear in mind that Anna has Dyslexia so does struggle a bit with the written word.40186.7508669329
Hey Bronwen-
I am not sure if I am doing something wrong, but I haven't been able to get the file to comple the downloading process. I will try from my work computer tonight to see if I can make it work there.
Just wanted to let you know that I haven't yet gotten it to work,
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

Since you seem to be having problems downloading the file of Anna's work I thought I would add it at the end of this post as a Microsoft Word document.

I hope this works.

Blessed Be

Bronwen.

Anna's Work (so far)

Behavioural problems in the domestic dog and breed dispositions - a study on links between behaviour and genes.

There is a theory called Biological determinism, where it is thought that genes are responsible for particular behaviour, but there are many aspects that actually are responsible for behaviour so this theory has been disregard now, even though inheritance is a significant thing.

As well as genes being responsible for physical characteristics they are also to a certain extent responsible for a dog's temperament. Artificially selecting breed's means we have a lot of various breeds around today, which as a consequence these dogs have exhibited many desirable characteristics for example speed, strength, herding and guarding capability.

Specific behaviours of dogs is not the responsibility of one particular gene as behaviours are a complex thing, as there are numerous genes that are involved as well as other factors and this is termed polygenic traits. Genes are just part of the story as well as things going on within their environment which develops towards any mannerism so possessing an inherited variation doesn't automatically mean that a specific characteristic will develop therefore the existence of specific genetic features can improve or suppress other genetic features. Genes are turned "on" and "off" but other things can be preventing a gene from it being turned "on" additionally the protein programmed by a gene can be adapted which means that it influences its ability to carry out its usual cellular task.

Pangenesis theory states that within the body the hereditary particles are affected by experiences in their life, this is transported in the blood to the reproductive cells so that the offspring inherits the acquired characteristics.

The offspring is given two copies of a gene which one comes from each parent and theses are known as alleles. If the two alleles are exactly the same it is said that the individual is homozygous for that trait and if the individual who is homozygous has two alleles that are not mixed together this is because one of the alleles is dominant over the other. Where an individual have two alleles that are different then the individual is heterozygous for that trait

Throughout the breeding process the method genes are passed down to the offspring is simply down to chance. During the procedure of the construction of sex cells (which is the process of meiosis) just one of the individual's pairs of alleles of each trait is put into each sex cell. Genes for the traits are found on the various chromosomes and the location of a specific gene on a chromosome is known as the locus.

Normally a dog's predatory behaviour is stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill but they tend to be selective bred so they only do particular parts of this sequence, for example to help us with hunting. The various breed groups have different behaviours that are linked to their genetic information and this is normally related to the sort of work they are bred for, such as, Border collie and the Shetland sheepdog only do the stalking part of the sequence, which is used for herding; the herding dogs essentially have excellent athletic capability, intelligent, be light, quick moving, a clever sense of livestock, a obedient temperament that is very responsive to a handler's commands but also independent enough to work without continuous commands. Herding dogs use various behavioural methods to herd for example when determined herding dogs are controlling a flock sheep they use a range of tricks such as a steely stare known as "eye," nipping at the heels and barking. These herding dogs all have this inbuilt yearning to gather, hold them in one place and moving herd's long distances, and all of these behaviours mentioned are to do with their genetic information, where breeds such as Terriers, for example, XXXXX XXXXX's were bred to keep rats, rabbits, and foxes under control both over and underground. Also several of the bigger terriers were used as well, to hunt badgers; therefore terriers do the whole stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence. Consequently there is a natural instinct for a XXXXX XXXXX to shake and kill small animals. This predator instinct in a terrier is able to be activated when they see moving objects such as rats, mice, cats, squirrels, rabbits, or foxes or the squeals and squeaks of any small animals. Other behavioural traits are that they have inconsistent temperament; invariably very excitable, have high energy levels, they have a watchdog behaviour, can be destructive, can be very strong-minded, can appear to have a regal temperament that gives them the air of self-confidence which is best displayed by the bull terrier, they can be somewhat aggressive towards other dogs, they like to explore, they love to dig but sometimes owners will say this is unwanted behaviour, unfortunately for the owner, this behaviour is a very natural thing for this breed of dog. This is why it would not be wise to have pet hamsters, rabbits, or guinea pigs in the same house as a terrier, as their natural predatory instinct would come into force.

The Dachshunds which means German badger dog will do the whole stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence as they were bred to follow a badger's trail, once the badger set had been found by the dachshund, it will dig down into the set and pull the badger out so it can kill it. The Dachshund was bred to have short legs so it can able to squeeze down the slim passageway to the inner part of the set, the dachshund like the XXXXX XXXXX has to have a fast response to kill his prey. The dachshunds over the years have also been used to hunt other animals for example foxes, rabbits, and even wild boars. The dachshund's behavioural traits would be that are a very clever, confident, active, Obedient even though they can also be extremely wilful at times, energetic, lovable, Adaptable to their environment, even irresistible, they generally have good-temperament, they are Persistent hunters and trackers, loyal to their owner, brave to the point of carelessness, they tend to be barkers but not always though it is very rare to see a timid Dachshund, but in the miniature variety they would be more likely to be shy. The Dachshund also love to dig even though, sometimes owners will say this is unwanted behaviour, unfortunately for the owner this behaviour is a very natural thing for this breed of dog, furthermore sometimes the dachshund can bite without any kind of warning, this would specially happen if the dog has been cornered; the main reason for this behaviour is because, if the dog meets a very angry badger head-on it would have to kill it quickly before the dog was attacked by the badger. If not properly socialized they will not be good with other dogs, they tend to also chase other small animals such as lizards or cat.

A lot of theses dog from each breed group share some behavioural traits as well as physical features.

3854 words left

Customer
Hi Dana,

Have you had a chance to look at Anna's work yet - she's getting a bit worried.

Blessed Be

Bronwen
Hi Bronwen-
I am just finishing up my edits/suggestions/additions, and should have it to you guys in a few hours.
Also, does the medifire website allow me to upload some journal articles I have which I think may be very helpful for Anna to read, incorporate, and use as references? I am not exactly sure how to do this, but they are PDF files, so if there is a way for me to upload them and share, I am more than happy to do so.
Hope all is well!
DanaMD for Pets40195.4376519329
Bronwen-
I have tried to upload the articles to mediafire, so we will see if this works.

http://www.mediafire.com/?ve2mezdfjym

http://www.mediafire.com/?nzdemtfw2th

http://www.mediafire.com/?mvy1kzzm0yn


http://www.mediafire.com/?jtyzh22zm5q

http://www.mediafire.com/?hydgrwnnyzn


These are some good articles from veterinary journals, so they will be good, reliable references to use.

Here is my first round of edits/suggestions to Anna's thesis.

Behavioural problems in the domestic dog and breed dispositions - a study on links between behaviour and genes.

Anna-

I think you have a great start and some really good ideas here! I will put my suggestions/changes in italics, feel free to use these changes as you see fit. Based on what you have started, I think a good outline to the paper would be as follows:

- introduction

- discussion on basic genetics

- discussion on what we know about behavioral genetics

- breed specific traits/behaviors and what is known about these genetics

- how can we change our breeding practices to deal with behavioral problems

- conclusion


Introduction

Scientific literature about the relationship between genetics and behavior in dogs, particularly pertaining to specific issues such as aggression, fear, and dominance, is lacking. This paucity of information is due to our limited understanding of the true nature of inheritance of behavioral traits, and the large impact of environmental influences on each individual animal’s personality. The objective of this thesis will be to address the connection between behavior and genetics, particularly as it applies to breed dispositions and behavioral problems in the domestic dog.

The relationship between genotype and phenotype was first described by Gregor Mendel using pea plants over 150 years ago. Using his scientific principles, many advances have been made in the understanding of inheritance of physical traits, behavior, and disease processes. However, Mendelian genetics alone cannot account entirely for the physical and behavioral characteristics of the individual; environmental influences and experiences also have a significant impact. For this reason, the Biological determinism theory, which describes a completely genetic basis to a specific behavior, has been largely discounted. Yet, just as genes are responsible for physical characteristics, they are also to a certain extent responsible for a dog's temperament. The impact of genetics and behavior can be most simply exemplified by evaluating how artificial selection for appearance and behavior has resulted in hundreds of breeds of dogs; each with their own desirable characteristics such speed, strength, and herding and guarding capabilities.

Specific behaviors of dogs are not the result of one particular gene; there are numerous genes that are involved in the development of behavior, and hence they are termed polygenic traits. Regardless, genes are only part of the complete explanation, as environmental influences will also contribute to the development of specific mannerisms. Therefore, the possession of an inherited variation doesn't guarantee that a specific characteristic will develop and hence the existence of specific genetic features can enhance or suppress other genetic features. (I think this paragraph is a little confusing, and needs more clarification to help tie together the idea of polygenic traits and their expression with environmental influences) Genes are turned "on" and "off" but other things can be preventing a gene from it being turned "on" additionally the protein programmed by a gene can be adapted which means that it influences its ability to carry out its usual cellular task. (Depending on how we re-word this paragraph will depend on how this sentence fits into it. After adjusting this paragraph, we can figure out how to further explore the idea of turning on and off genes)

Pangenesis theory states that within the body the hereditary particles are affected by experiences in their life, this is transported in the blood to the reproductive cells so that the offspring inherits the acquired characteristics. Anna, I would expand further on this theory if you want to include it in the thesis. To my understanding, this was Darwin’s attempt at explaining genetics, yet it is not widely accepted today. So if you want to include it in part of the history of understanding behavioral genetics, I would expand upon it more, and move it to the introduction. However, given that it is not really used currently, I don’t think that it is essential to the paper.

The offspring is given two copies of a gene which one comes from each parent and theses are known as alleles. If the two alleles are exactly the same it is said that the individual is homozygous for that trait and if the individual who is homozygous has two alleles that are not mixed together this is because one of the alleles is dominant over the other. Where an individual have two alleles that are different then the individual is heterozygous for that trait. Anna, I am not sure if you need to include this information, as it is more basic genetics than specific to behavior. And the reason I am not sure is I don’t know what your curriculum has been and if this information is expected to be in the paper. If you feel this needs to be included, then I would move it to the introduction part of the paper, and integrate it into part after a description of Mendelian genetics and before the explanation of why Mendelian genetics don’t completely account for behavior.

Throughout the breeding process the method genes are passed down to the offspring is simply down to chance. During the procedure of the construction of sex cells (which is the process of meiosis) just one of the individual's pairs of alleles of each trait is put into each sex cell. Genes for the traits are found on the various chromosomes and the location of a specific gene on a chromosome is known as the locus. I also think this information may not be needed, unless an explanation of basic genetics is needed based on your course’s requirements/expectations. Again, if you feel it is needed, I would move it up with the other information as above.

Normally a dog's predatory behaviour is stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill but, however, dogs tend to be selectively bred such that they only do particular parts of this sequence, to be able to perform very specific tasks. For example, the Border Collie and the Shetland Sheepdog will perform the stalking part of this sequence, which is used for herding. In addition to their ability to stalk, herding dogs have excellent athletic capabilities, are intelligent, agile, and obedient. They are responsive to a handler's commands yet also independent enough to work independently without continuous commands. Other characteristic behaviors among herding dogs include controlling a flock sheep using a steely stare known as "eye” and nipping at the heels of the animals being herded. They have an inbuilt yearning to gather, hold, and move flocks long distances, which are behaviors resulting from the unique genetics of the herding breeds.


In contrast, terriers, such as the XXXXX XXXXX or Parson’s Russell Terrier, were bred to keep rats, rabbits, and foxes under control both over and underground while several of the larger terrier breeds were used to hunt badgers. Therefore terriers, based on the work they were bred to perform, need stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence. Consequently there is a natural instinct for terriers to shake and kill small animals. This predatory instinct can be activated when they see moving objects such as rats, mice, cats, squirrels, rabbits, or foxes or they hear the squeals and squeaks of small animals. Other behavioural traits are their inconsistent temperaments, excitable nature, high energy levels and strong will. Less desirable characteristics that these breeds may exhibit as pets include aggression towards other dogs, a tendency to explore and roam, and a passion for digging.


The Dachshund, or German badger dog, will also complete the entire stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence as they were bred to follow and kill badgers, foxes, rabbits, and even wild boars. The Dachshund’s short legs allow it into narrow burrows and holes, and function as a prime example of breed genetic modification to achieve a specific trait. Common behavioral traits of the daschund include a clever, confident, energetic, and occasionally willful demeanor. They are adaptable to their environment, generally have a good-temperament, are loyal to their owner, are sometimes brave to the point of carelessness, and are inclined to bark. Like the terriers, the Dachshund also loves to dig, often to the chagrin of its owners. Daschunds may bite without any kind of warning, especially if there is a perceived threat, as their role as badger hunters require them to act quickly if threatened. This tendency for them to bite without provocation emphasizes the need proper socialization.

A lot of theses dog from each breed group share some behavioural traits as well as physical features.

I think you did a good job exploring the specific behaviors of some breeds of dogs above. I would further discuss canine aggression and its inheritance, especially why certain breeds are more prone to aggression.


To conclude the thesis, we will tie together all of the information about genetics and any role of environmental influences, and how this information can be used to improve breeding practices and educate owners (to not be surprised when their daschund digs for example!)


As another suggestion, I think it would be best to reference as much information as possible from text book or journal articles. Information can be published by anyone on the internet, and we don’t know how accurate it is. Information from published, peer reviewed or edited sources is much more reliable.



DanaMD for Pets40195.5226481134
Customer
Hi Dana,

Anna says thank you very much for all your help. We were able to download the mediafile documents easily.

She also asks that when she has finished the thesis would you be kind enough to cast your eyes over it before she sends it to her tutor.

Her last comment so far regarding the thesis is , I quote; 'I have had just about enough of this *bleep* thesis it's really doing my head in'.

Many Thanks and Blessed Be

Bronwen
Bronwen-
Glad I was able to help!
Absolutely have her send it to me after she has made some more edits, I would be more than happy to look it over again!
I understand the feeling of the looming paper.....I have a few journal articles and book chapters doing the same thing to me!
Take care, talk to you soon!
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

Anna said could you explain what the following means please?

provide a “back stop” of effective regulation to ensure that where commitment and goodwill are lacking welfare standards cannot fall below acceptable



Blessed Be

Bronwen
Customer
Hi Dana,

Have you had a chance to look at the last post yet?

Blessed Be

Bronwen
Hi Bronwen-

Well I am not sure exactly what the context of that quote is, and the remainder of the information provided in to source that generated the quote, my guess is that the "back-stop" is a metaphor for something to prevent things from passing beyond a certain point. In baseball a back-stop is a wall or fence behind home plate to prevent the ball from going out of the field. So, my guess is that the quote is referring to regulation that creates an absolute standard that whatever is being referenced cannot go below in the event that commitment and goodwill are not enough to maintain those standards.

I hope this helps.

Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

I have looked at the 'source' Anna was using with her and with what you have just told us and it all fits. The source is talking about breeding standards.

By the way, would it be conveient to upload the work Anna has done so far for you to cast your eyes over?

Many Thanks and Blessed Be

Bronwen
Bronwen-
Great! Glad I was able to help with that.
Sure, go ahead and post what she has so far, and I will work on it this weekend.
Thanks
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

Here is Anna's work so far.

http://www.mediafire.com/file/ytw0mmaogtj/For Dana (nearly complete not quite lol).odt

Please let me know if/when you get it.

Anna says thanks very much.

Blessed Be

Bronwen & Anna
Hey Bronwen-
Since I don't have MS Office 2007, the file is in the ".odt" format, which I can't get to open in my old version of word (I need a new computer!)
Maybe you can copy & paste into the body on here, and I can make changes, then resubmit it back to you that way if that's ok.
Otherwise, I guess the format it is saved as may need to be changed so I can open it.
Either option is fine with me,
Thanks!
Dana
Customer
Hi Dana,

I'll copy and paste it here for you.
Maybe we should always use this method in future, what do you think.

Blessed Be

Bronwen.

Anna's work so far:

Behavioural problems in the domestic dog and breed dispositions - a study on links between behaviour and genes.



There is a lacking of Scientific literature about the relationship between genetics and behaviour in dogs especially those connected to particular issues such as aggression, fear, and dominance. The reason for this insufficiency of information is because of our limited understanding of the true nature of inheritance of behavioural traits, as well as and the significant affect of environmental influences on each individual animal's personality.

The aim of this thesis will be to address the link between behaviour and genetics, especially as its relevance to breed temperaments and behavioural problems in the domestic dog.
The relationship between genotype and phenotype was first described over one hundred and fifty years ago by Gregor Mendel using pea plants.

Applying his scientific principles, a lot of progressions have been successful in the understanding of inheritance of physical traits, behaviour, and disease processes. Nevertheless, Mendelian genetics on its own cannot account completely for the physical and behavioural traits of the individual; environmental influences and theses occurrences also have a considerable impact. For that reason , the Biological determinism theory, which describes a entirely genetic basis to a particular behaviour, has been largely discounted. However, just as genes are responsible for physical characteristics, they are also to a certain extent responsible for a dog's temperament. The effect of genetics and behaviour can be most clearly serve as an example by examining and determining how artificial selection for appearance and behaviour has resulted in hundreds of breeds of dogs; each with their own desirable characteristics such speed, strength, and herding and guarding capabilities.

Specific behaviours of dogs are not the result of one particular gene; there are numerous genes that are involved in the development of behaviour, and therefore they are termed polygenic traits. Irrespective to that, genes are only a part of the whole explanation, as environmental influences will also go towards the development of specific mannerisms.

Hence, the ownership of an inherited variation does not give any assurance that a specific characteristic will develop and therefore the existence of specific genetic features can intensify or suppress other genetic features. Genes are turned "on" and "off" but other things can be preventing a gene from it being turned "on" additionally the protein programmed by a gene can be adapted which means that it influences its ability to carry out its usual cellular task.


Every dog has thirty nine pairs of chromosomes of which thirty eight pairs are autosomes and the last pair are sex chromosomes. There are about one hundred thousand genes located in pairs on theses chromosomes. The pairs of genes are numbered from one to twelve and each pair are known as alleles. The pairs of genes have different combinations of genetic markers, so when theses genetic markers are AA this is normal and the dog will not suffer the condition, when the genetic markers are Aa this is normal but they carry the recessive gene which will be passed on to their offspring and when genetic markers are aa this is recessive and the dog will suffer the condition.


The offspring is given two copies of a gene of which one gene is given from each parent. The genetic markers which are AA and aa are matched pairs so the dog would be homozygous at that locus point (which is the particular location of a specific gene on a chromosome) for that trait and will express the trait. A dog that is heterozygous at that locus point then the genetic markers are Aa which is not a match because one alleles is dominant over the other. The dominant alleles is shown with an upper-case where the lower case represent the recessive alleles so AA is two dominant alleles which the condition is homozygous dominant, aa is two recessive alleles which the condition is called homozygous recessive and Aa is one dominant and one recessive alleles.

Throughout the breeding process the method genes are passed down to the offspring is simply down to chance. During the procedure of the construction of sex cells (which is the process of meiosis) just one of the individual's pairs of alleles of each trait is put into each sex cell.

Based on a sire and dame having four offspring this is the chance of them having offspring with certain genetic markers. If the sire and dame are both AA then all of their offspring will have a one hundred percent chance of also being AA which is normal and will not suffer the condition. If both parents are Aa which is normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring then there is a twenty five percent chance of the offspring (one pup) will be AA which is that this pup will not suffer the condition, a fifty percent chance of the offspring (two pups) will be Aa which is that theses puppies are normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring and a twenty five percent chance of the offspring (one pup) will be aa which result in this offspring suffering the condition. If both parents are aa (which is that both parents will suffer the condition) then all of their offspring will have a one hundred percent chance of also being aa which is these offspring will suffer the condition like their parents but the breeding of two parents with this genetic marker is very rare as the parents would not be around long enough to mate and pass on their gene. If the one parent is AA (which is normal and will not suffer the condition) and the other parent is Aa (which is normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring) then there is a fifty percent chance of their off spring (two pups) will be AA which means that theses two puppies will be normal therefore they will not suffer the condition and the other fifty percent (two puppies) will be Aa which means the two puppies will be normal but they will carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring. If one parent is AA (which is means that this dog will not suffer the condition) and the other parent is aa (which means this parent will suffer the condition, again this is rare as normally the dog will not be around long enough to pass on its genes) then the offspring will have a one hundred percent chance of being Aa which means that all four puppies will be normal but they will carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring. If one parent is Aa (which mean this parent is normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring) and the other is aa (which means this parent will suffer the condition, again this is rare as normally the dog will not be around long enough to pass on its genes) then the offspring will have a fifty percent chance (two puppies) of being Aa (which mean theses two puppies are normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring) and the other fifty percent (two puppies) being aa which is these offspring will suffer the condition.

Inbreeding is a big problem when it comes to behavioural as well as health problems as it increases homozygosity at all the gene locations as well as increases homozygosity for the recessive alleles which is just like it happens for the dominant alleles and therefore concealed recessive traits which previously would not be a problem now comes together a lot more often and causes health and behavioural problems.


Normally a dog's predatory behaviour is stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill but, however, dogs tend to be selectively bred such that they only do particular parts of this sequence, to be able to perform very specific tasks. For example, the Border Collie and the Shetland Sheepdog will perform the stalking part of this sequence, which is used for herding. Additionally to their ability to stalk, herding dogs have excellent athletic capabilities, are intelligent, agile, and obedient. They are responsive to a handler's commands yet also independent enough to work independently without continuous commands. Other characteristic behaviours among herding dogs include controlling a flock sheep using a steely stare known as "eye" and nipping at the heels of the animals being herded. They have an inbuilt yearning to gather, hold, and move flocks long distances, which are behaviours resulting from the unique genetics of the herding breeds. In contrast, terriers, such as the XXXXX XXXXX or Parson's Russell Terrier, were bred to keep rats, rabbits, and foxes under control both over and underground while several of the larger terrier breeds were used to hunt badgers. Therefore terriers, depending on the work they were bred to do need stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence. Consequently there is a natural instinct for terriers to shake and kill small animals. This predatory instinct can be activated when they see moving objects such as rats, mice, cats, squirrels, rabbits, or foxes or they hear the squeals and squeaks of small animals. Other behavioural traits are their inconsistent temperaments, excitable nature, high energy levels and strong will. Undesirable traits that these breeds may display as pets including aggression towards other dogs, a tendency to explore and roam, and a passion for digging.

The Dachshund, or German badger dog, will also complete the entire stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence as they were bred to follow and kill badgers, foxes, rabbits, and even wild boars. The Dachshund's short legs allows it into narrow burrows and holes, and function as a prime example of breed genetic alteration to accomplish a particular trait. Common behavioural traits of the Dachshund include a clever, confident, energetic, and on occasion a wilful demeanour. They are adaptable to their environment, generally have a good-temperament, are loyal to their owner, are sometimes brave to the point of carelessness, and are inclined to bark. Like the terriers, the Dachshund also loves to dig, often to the annoyance of its owners. Dachshunds may bite without any kind of warning, particularly if there is a sensed threat, as their role as badger hunters they need to act quickly if threatened. This tendency for them to bite without aggravation stresses the need proper socialization.

German shepherd temperament is that they are very active, intelligent, well behaved, confident, faithful to people they know but can be over protective of their family members, they can be rather cautious with people they don't know but once they recognize you as friend not foe they will be you friend for life, they can be seem a bit distant which can make them approachable but they are not prepared to be friends with a stranger straight away, they are very eager to learn as well as eager to have a purpose in their life for example a job as a guard dog or police dog.

The Newfoundland dog's temperament is that they are kind, strong, are known for how gentle they are specially children, easy to train, caring, they can have very elegant disposition. There are many hypothesis to how theses dogs came about but one thought is that these dogs are an evolved from the American Black Wolf which is now extinct or a large mastiff such as a Tibetan Mastiff. A second hypothesis is that evolved from 'fifteen to sixteen century European explorers dog' (bearadisenewfoundlands.com) so it is thought that in order to get the breed Newfoundland they bred mastiff , Pryrenean sheep dog and Portuguese water dog together to get the breed which as required.

Sight hounds use their sight to hunt for their prey and have distinguished characteristics and traits. Sight hounds have excellent vision, they have a long jaw, a long neck, they have a deep chest, their bodies are lean athletic build and long strong legs which is ideal for the chase part of their predatory behaviour instinct. For example the Afghan hound (which is a sight hound) its temperament can be elegant, affectionate, graceful, loyal, intelligent, have good reasoning skills, independent, they can also be quite aloof and when they are playing, they are joyful and will clown around. They have a very strong commitment to the pack and a very high prey drive, and will probably ignore any instructions from their humans at times. Afghan hounds were used for lure coursing, conformation showing, to hunt foxes, wolves and gazelle and the Irish wolfhound are very loyal to their owners, patient, easy going, affectionate, they have very passive attributes, they are rather quite natured but they are also very dedicated to their owner. They are comparatively easy to train as long as the owner gives firm, gentle and consistent leadership to the dog and the Saluki are very reserved, intelligent, sensitive and very quick to learn.

Scent hounds use their scent to hunt for their prey rather than sight and they have quite distinguished characteristics such as they have long droopy ears which is said to be like this because it helps gather up the scent from the air and to keep the scent closer to the face as well as big nasal cavities which makes it more superior for processing the scent and in most cases they tend to have loose, moist lips which are apparently used to capture scent particles. When running scent hounds are active and they are especially when they are pursuing a scent and they will stay on that scent over a lengthy distance even over rough terrain and a really good scent dog can follow a scent over water. The temperaments of Scent hounds are generally sweet, kind, loyal, affectionate, intelligent, independent by nature, a lot will not follow commands unless it suits them and they tend to not be destructive but will display this unwanted behaviour if bored. For example the Rhodesian



Ridgeback (which is a scent hound) temperament is that they are devoted to their owner, Clever, strong-minded, they tend to have a fondness of being mischievous though affectionately and they tend to be standoffish towards strangers. The Rhodesian Ridgeback genetics is that they have a genotype that is accountable for its ridge and this genotype has been found by a group of researchers at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala University and the Broad Institute. Studies have taken place regarding the Rhodesian Ridgebacks ridge this included when an offspring is born "ridgelessness" this term is where an pure bred offspring from heterozygous parents does not receive a copy of the ridge mutation gene from one or the other of its parents, which means that these dogs who are "ridgelessness" are really just a normal dog that does not have a ridged back. The ridgelessness rate has been shown to be less than twenty five percent and this can not be made clear when applying it to the punnett square for a single gene/two alleles inheritance. The reason that this study may vary from the expected twenty five percent is that non heterozygous parents who possess a copy of both the ridgeless and ridged alleles were included in the study . By including homozygous dogs which have two copies of the ridged alleles it can be discovered that less than 25% frequency takes place when this is looked at over the whole population within the study. There is no actual molecular genetic test to find if the dog has the ridge gene though Rhodesian Ridgebacks can be less responsive than some breeds, they can be stubborn and they can be destructive if they don't get enough exercise. This breed was created by cautiously mixing greyhound for its speed with the fox terrier for the hunting instinct and the bulldog for the stubbornness in the hunt. Heterozygotes are found out by mating the dog which they are unsure about with either a already identified heterozygotes or homozygous recessives and when a ridgeless pup is born it is detected as a heterozygote.



The English fox hound which is also a scent hound, temperament is that they are very friendly and very sociable dogs, they are very active so they are very high energy dogs and can run for hours at a steady speed for up to five to six hours without interruption or tiring, they are independent, courageous, avid hunters, they reacts well to leadership and are eager as well as capable in being

They were originally they were used for hunting deer but in the reign of Henry VIII they deemed that they had to change their prey to foxes.



A lot of theses dog from each breed group share some behavioural traits as well as physical features. Genetic endowment is crucial if we want to predict the chance that the offspring will have certain traits.



Changes in the breeding practice need to improve in order to reduce the risk of breeding dogs with behavioural problems as well as general health problem and this could be achieved by the following.



In order to reduce the risk of behavioural problems, there needs to be more effort to deter the breeding for dogs with physical deformities, this could be achieved by the continuous collection of evidence from a wide range of veterinary surgeries, referral practices, university veterinary hospitals as well as other leading clinical centres would let scientist see what disorders are in existent in specific pure breeds or cross breeds furthermore they can find out at what age it happens and this data collection is crucial to support and guide improvements to the conduct of breeding away from particular conditions as well as be used to supply evidence on which decisions can be made about the regulations in the future and it would help both breeders and owners to steer their efforts away from inbreeding



Also the regulations of animal welfare act needs to be improved and local authorities need to inspect breeders better as well more regularly along with the introduction of a statuary code of practice for breeders and there needs to be more genetic tests available to the public and those tests that are available needs to be confirmed as urgent but all this does not mean that it solve particular health problems but it is hoped that it could be used as a means to direct breeders on their decisions which therefore decrease the chances of health and behavioural problems.



More help needs to be given to buyers to find a reliable dog breeder or other sources who will provide a dog which is in good physical shape, has good health, socialized, has all the proper documentation as well as give guidance to the buyer and prospective owners should be more assertive about seeing the puppies with their mothers and the puppies should be microchipped in order to be able to trace bad breeders.



The collection of reliable epidemiological evidence on the environmental fluctuation is required so that owners and breeders receive help as well as advise on how to decrease the welfare problems in dogs and insurance companies need to start sharing suitable unnamed data as this will supply substantial public relations helping them to tackle the influential matters of public worry that they are most concerned about and by the insurance companies sharing this information it would also benefit them a lot as it would reduce there number of claims because there is an improvement in the dogs health.



Sellers and potential dog owners need to be taught what is defined as good welfare as well as what is the classed as the right behaviour in dogs and the need to apply education, accomplishment and responsibility to benefits that already exist within the dog breeding community.



There needs to be more strict, robust policing as well as reputable high class assurance scheme and the authorities need to make sure that the breeders that do provide authentically high welfare standards are rewarded as well as acknowledged for this both within the market place and the show ring.



The owners also need to understand how they can benefit by buying from a reputable breeder as well as the risk when they buy an animal from a bad breeder and the buyer need to be inspired to make sure that they are prepared with the responsibility that dog ownership brings when they are considering buying a dog.



3397 words













1603 left to write

Bronwen & Anna-
Below are my revisions/suggestions, in italics, as before. Let me know if there are questions, or if things need further clarification.
Good luck as it all comes together!
Dana

Behavioural problems in the domestic dog and breed dispositions - a study on links between behaviour and genes.

There is a lack of scientific literature about the relationship between genetics and behaviour in dogs, especially those connected to particular issues such as aggression, fear, and dominance. The reason for this insufficient information is because of our limited understanding of the true nature of inheritance of behavioural traits, as well as and the significant and variable affect of environmental influences on each individual animal's personality. The aim of this thesis will be to address the link between behaviour and genetics, especially as it relates to breed temperaments and behavioural problems in the domestic dog.

The relationship between genotype and phenotype was first described over one hundred and fifty years ago by Gregor Mendel using pea plants. Applying his scientific principles, much progress has been made in the understanding of inheritance of physical traits, behaviour, and disease processes. Nevertheless, Mendelian genetics on their own cannot account completely for the physical and behavioural traits of the individual; environmental influences also have a considerable impact. For that reason, the Biological determinism theory, which describes a entirely genetic basis to a particular behaviour, has been largely discounted. However, just as genes are responsible for physical characteristics, they are also to a certain extent responsible for a dog's temperament. The effect of genetics on behaviour can be most clearly illustrated by examining and determining how artificial selection for appearance and behaviour has resulted in hundreds of breeds of dogs; each with their own unique characteristics and traits.

Specific behaviours of dogs are not the result of one particular gene; there are numerous genes that are involved in the development of behaviour, and therefore they are termed polygenic traits. Irrespective to that, genes are only a part of the whole explanation, as environmental influences will also go towards the development of specific mannerisms. (These 2 sentences basically say the same thing as the end of the previous paragraph – I think you can either delete this or remove the last few sentences from the last paragraph and use this)

The presence of an inherited variation does not give guarantee that a specific characteristic will develop, therefore the existence of specific genetic features can intensify or suppress others. Genes are turned "on" and "off" but other things can be preventing a gene from it being turned "on" additionally the protein programmed by a gene can be adapted which means that it influences its ability to carry out its usual cellular task. (I think if you want to talk about this, you need to go into more detail – it really doesn’t fit into the paper here on its own, I think you need to expand on this point if you want to include it. That being said, I don’t know how crucial it is to the paper)

Every dog has thirty nine pairs of chromosomes of which thirty eight pairs are autosomes and the last pair are sex chromosomes. There are about one hundred thousand genes located in pairs on theses chromosomes. The pairs of genes are numbered from one to twelve and each pair are known as alleles. The pairs of genes have different combinations of genetic markers, so when theses genetic markers are AA this is normal and the dog will not suffer the condition, when the genetic markers are Aa this is normal but they carry the recessive gene which will be passed on to their offspring and when genetic markers are aa this is recessive and the dog will suffer the condition.

The offspring is given two copies of a gene of which one gene is given from each parent. The genetic markers which are AA and aa are matched pairs so the dog would be homozygous at that locus point (which is the particular location of a specific gene on a chromosome) for that trait and will express the trait. A dog that is heterozygous at that locus point then the genetic markers are Aa which is not a match because one alleles is dominant over the other. The dominant alleles is shown with an upper-case where the lower case represent the recessive alleles so AA is two dominant alleles which the condition is homozygous dominant, aa is two recessive alleles which the condition is called homozygous recessive and Aa is one dominant and one recessive alleles.

Throughout the breeding process the method genes are passed down to the offspring is simply down to chance. During the procedure of the construction of sex cells (which is the process of meiosis) just one of the individual's pairs of alleles of each trait is put into each sex cell.

Based on a sire and dame having four offspring this is the chance of them having offspring with certain genetic markers. If the sire and dame are both AA then all of their offspring will have a one hundred percent chance of also being AA which is normal and will not suffer the condition. If both parents are Aa which is normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring then there is a twenty five percent chance of the offspring (one pup) will be AA which is that this pup will not suffer the condition, a fifty percent chance of the offspring (two pups) will be Aa which is that theses puppies are normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring and a twenty five percent chance of the offspring (one pup) will be aa which result in this offspring suffering the condition. If both parents are aa (which is that both parents will suffer the condition) then all of their offspring will have a one hundred percent chance of also being aa which is these offspring will suffer the condition like their parents but the breeding of two parents with this genetic marker is very rare as the parents would not be around long enough to mate and pass on their gene. If the one parent is AA (which is normal and will not suffer the condition) and the other parent is Aa (which is normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring) then there is a fifty percent chance of their off spring (two pups) will be AA which means that theses two puppies will be normal therefore they will not suffer the condition and the other fifty percent (two puppies) will be Aa which means the two puppies will be normal but they will carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring. If one parent is AA (which is means that this dog will not suffer the condition) and the other parent is aa (which means this parent will suffer the condition, again this is rare as normally the dog will not be around long enough to pass on its genes) then the offspring will have a one hundred percent chance of being Aa which means that all four puppies will be normal but they will carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring. If one parent is Aa (which mean this parent is normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring) and the other is aa (which means this parent will suffer the condition, again this is rare as normally the dog will not be around long enough to pass on its genes) then the offspring will have a fifty percent chance (two puppies) of being Aa (which mean theses two puppies are normal but they carry the recessive gene that will be passed on to their offspring) and the other fifty percent (two puppies) being aa which is these offspring will suffer the condition.

Inbreeding is a big problem when it comes to behavioural as well as health problems as it increases homozygosity at all the gene locations as well as increases homozygosity for the recessive alleles which is just like it happens for the dominant alleles and therefore concealed recessive traits which previously would not be a problem now comes together a lot more often and causes health and behavioural problems.

(Anna, I don’t know if this discussion of basic genetics is really necessary, especially since it can be tough to make generalizations about inheritance/disease or no disease using this scheme, since it really depends on a specific problem and its mode of inheritance. If you feel that based on your course-work that this discussion is essential, then I would include it. However, since the whole introduction of the paper is saying that behavioural genetics don’t necessary follow mendelian inheritance patterns, it doesn’t seem useful to have a huge discussion about them. Again, I don’t know exactly what your requirements are, and what type of background is expected, so I will have to defer this to someone who has a better idea about the course and its expectations.)

Normally a dog's predatory behaviour is stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill but, however, dogs tend to be selectively bred such that they only do particular parts of this sequence, to be able to perform very specific tasks. For example, the Border Collie and the Shetland Sheepdog will perform the stalking part of this sequence, which is used for herding. In addition to their ability to stalk, herding dogs have excellent athletic capabilities, are intelligent, agile, and obedient. They are responsive to a handler's commands yet also independent enough to work without continuous instructions.. Other characteristic behaviours among herding dogs include controlling a flock sheep using a steely stare known as "eye" and nipping at the heels of the animals being herded. They have an inbuilt yearning to gather, hold, and move flocks long distances, which are behaviours resulting from the unique genetics of the herding breeds.

In contrast, terriers, such as the XXXXX XXXXX or Parson's Russell Terrier, were bred to keep rats, rabbits, and foxes under control both over and underground. Therefore terriers, depending on the work they were bred to do, need to perform the entire stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence. Consequently there is a natural instinct for terriers to shake and kill small animals. This predatory instinct can be activated when they see moving objects such as rats, mice, cats, squirrels, rabbits, or foxes or they hear the squeals and squeaks of small animals. Other behavioural traits are their inconsistent temperaments, excitable nature, high energy levels and strong will. Undesirable traits that these breeds may display as pets include aggression towards other dogs, a tendency to explore and roam, and a passion for digging.

The Dachshund, or German badger dog, will also complete the entire stalk-chase-grab-bite-kill sequence as they were bred to follow and kill badgers, foxes, rabbits, and even wild boars. The Dachshund's short legs allow it into narrow burrows and holes, and function as a prime example of breed genetic alteration to accomplish a particular trait. Common behavioural traits of the Dachshund include a clever, confident, energetic, and occasionally wilful demeanour. They are adaptable to their environment, generally have a good-temperament, are loyal to their owner, are sometimes brave to the point of carelessness, and are inclined to bark. Like the terriers, the Dachshund also loves to dig, often to the annoyance of its owners. Dachshunds may bite without any kind of warning, particularly if there is a sensed threat, as their role as badger hunters necessitated quick action if threatened. This tendency for them to bite without aggravation stresses the need proper socialization.

German shepherds are active, intelligent, confident, faithful, and protective of their family members. They can be rather cautious with unfamiliar people. German shepherds are known to be very eager to learn and have a purpose in their life such as a job as a guard dog or police dog.

Newfoundland's are known to be kind, gently with children, and easy to train. (Since you haven’t discussed the origin of other breeds, I would not begin that discussion now, unless you plan to do so for all of the dogs. I think instead you can expand on the jobs Newfounds commonly perform and why their temperament is suited to these roles)

Sight hounds use sight to hunt for prey and therefore have excellent vision. Their long jaw and neck, deep chest, and athletic build and long strong legs are ideal for the chase part of their predatory behaviour instinct. The Afghan hound is affectionate, loyal, intelligent, independent, and playful. They have a very strong commitment to the pack and a very high prey drive, and have been known to ignore owner commands. Afghan hounds are used for lure coursing, and hunting. The Irish wolfhound is very, patient, easy going, affectionate, and dedicated to their owners. They are comparatively easy to train as long as the owner gives firm, gentle and consistent leadership.

Scent hounds use scent to hunt for prey and have unique characteristics such as long droopy ears. The long ear is thought to help collect scent from the air and keep it close to the face. They also have large nasal cavities for superior scent processing and loose, moist lips to capture scent particles. Scent hounds are active and will stay on a scent over lengthy distances, even over rough terrain and water. The temperaments of scent hounds are generally sweet, loyal, affectionate, intelligent, and independent.

Rhodesian Ridgebacks, a type of scent hound, are generally devoted to their owner, clever, strong-minded, and affectionate. They can be less responsive than some breeds, stubborn and destructive without adequate enough exercise. This breed was created by combining a greyhound’s speed with the fox terrier’s hunting instinct and the bulldog’s stubbornness in the hunt.

The Rhodesian Ridgeback genetics is that they have a genotype that is accountable for its ridge and this genotype has been found by a group of researchers at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala University and the Broad Institute. Studies have taken place regarding the Rhodesian Ridgebacks ridge this included when an offspring is born "ridgelessness" this term is where an pure bred offspring from heterozygous parents does not receive a copy of the ridge mutation gene from one or the other of its parents, which means that these dogs who are "ridgelessness" are really just a normal dog that does not have a ridged back. The ridgelessness rate has been shown to be less than twenty five percent and this can not be made clear when applying it to the punnett square for a single gene/two alleles inheritance. The reason that this study may vary from the expected twenty five percent is that non heterozygous parents who possess a copy of both the ridgeless and ridged alleles were included in the study . By including homozygous dogs which have two copies of the ridged alleles it can be discovered that less than 25% frequency takes place when this is looked at over the whole population within the study. There is no actual molecular genetic test to find if the dog has the ridge gene though. (Since you haven’t gone into this level of detail about the genetics of other traits in the other dogs, I wouldn’t go into this level of detail here. I think a sentence or two is fine, but you don’t need all of this information)

The English fox hound, which is also a scent hound, is friendly, social, and active. They are independent dogs as well as courageous and avid hunters, and they are amenable to training. Their original purpose was to hunt deer, but they were also found to be capable fox hunters as well.

Since genetics have an undeniable role in behavior, breeding practice changes are needed to decrease the risk of undesirable inherited behavioural and health issues. In order to reduce the risk of behavioural problems, there needs to be more effort to deter the breeding for dogs with physical deformities, this could be achieved by the continuous collection of evidence from a wide range of veterinary surgeries, referral practices, university veterinary hospitals as well as other leading clinical centres would let scientist see what disorders are in existent in specific pure breeds or cross breeds furthermore they can find out at what age it happens and this data collection is crucial to support and guide improvements to the conduct of breeding away from particular conditions as well as be used to supply evidence on which decisions can be made about the regulations in the future and it would help both breeders and owners to steer their efforts away from inbreeding (This paragraph doesn’t really make sense – why would not breeding dogs with physical deformities lead to better behaviour? (unless those traits are linked). I think it is important to discuss the role of very selective breeding, and the benefit of veterinarian and research involvement. I would expand more on this)

There is room for much improvement in terms of current animal welfare regulations. In addition to routine inspections of breeding facilities, a written and enforced code of practice for breeders would help ensure ethical breeding of animals. If genetic testing for known diseases affective a given breeds is available, the mandatory use of such tests before breeding could also be enforced through incorporation of such standards into the law. While such testing will not completely eliminate diseases and behavioral problems immediately, they may help breeders make informed choices about dogs used in their breeding pool. Breeders who comply with these standards should be recognized such that potential dog owners can determine which breeders are upholding the ethics of responsible dog breeding.

It is very important that information and support is available to potential purebred dog owners to help them understand the importance of responsible breeding and finding healthy well socialized dogs. Such education would help prospective owners know the right questions to ask, and allow them to feel comfortable requesting visits of the kennels and meeting the parents of the prospective puppy.

Anna – I think things are coming along nicely. I would expand more on how to create effective regulations, the role of the veterinarian in education and health care, and more about being an educated prospective dog owner.

Customer
Many Thanks for this Dana.

I have printed it off for Anna and will let you know how she gets on.

Blessed Be

Bronwen
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Dr Scott Nimmo
Dog Veterinarian
23,596 Satisfied Customers
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