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Thank you for your question regarding your 15 year old diabetic boy who has had diarrhea for the last couple of weeks. This definitely sounds as though he has a chronic diarrhea and we are definitely at the point where a definitive diagnosis for this problem needs to be made. It sounds like you have tried a mirage of different treatments, but no specific cause for the problem has been identified first and I personally think we need to get an idea of the exact cause now. It could be that your boy has a chronic gastroenteritis from an ongoing infection in his terminal colon, however we can also see softer feces than usual in cases of food sensitivities and intolerances as well as inflammatory bowel disease and pancreatic problems.
The most likely cause is a chronic colitis if if feces are pastier than usual, smelly and contain fresh blood, which can commonly be caused by salmonella or campylobacter. If this problem is ongoing, you should take a sample in an icecream container or something similar so that your Vet can send it to the lab for a fecal culture so that we know what is going on here. Your Vet may also want to undertake a diet trial with your boy to help rule in or rule out a food sensitivity or allergy using a product called Hill's Z/D ultra allergen free or something similar.
We also have to consider other endocrine diseases that can cause ongoing diarrhea such as Addison's disease and so for this reason a full blood and urine test would definitely be beneficial. A fecal float for parasites and a test for tritrichomonus fetus would also definitely be recommended in such an ongoing diarrhea. Finally if all these avenues were exhausted and there was still no diagnosis, my final step would be a full abdominal ultrasound to rule out cancer or telescoping of the gut (intersussception).
Best of luck with your boy and be sure to keep on top of his diabetes meds during all of this. He should also be on a bland diet and have plenty of access to fresh water. Please keep me posted on his progress and your Vet's thoughts on further diagnostics.
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Dr M D Edwards