If you were told to retain counsel and you did not ask for a public defender back on your court date when you first pled not guilty, you will not have one assigned to you when you walk into court tomorrow.
As long as you show up for your court date, there would be no reason for the court to put you in jail, however, you can expect that you won't have a lawyer. You can show up and ask the judge for a continuance and tell him you did not have the time to retain an attorney. He should give you another date to return with counsel.
Public defenders are only for people who are too poor to afford a lawyer. Typically, they are people at poverty level or below without homes, credit or assets. If that's the category you fall under or if you have money but it's all tied up in a divorce or in bankruptcy proceedings, or you are a full-time student, you would likely qualify for a free lawyer, and you can ask the judge for one tomorrow.
If, however, you are gainfully employed and make a reasonable living, if you ask for a public defender, the judge will likely turn you down. One way of being able to retain counsel in a hurry when, as here, you have no possibility of reaching a lawyer today for a court date tomorrow, is to simply fiind one in court tomorrow. Get there early and watch the lawyers already there handling other cases. If one impresses you, approach him and ask whether he is interested in taking on your case as well. If he is, you can retain him then and there.
But no, even without a lawyer, there would be no reason for you to go to jail tomorrow unless the state offered you a plea with a jail sentence and you accepted it. And there would be no reason at all for you to do that tomorrow when you've yet to have consulted with a lawyer.