Consumer Protection Law
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The #1 sign of a loan scam is if they ask you for money that you have to pay out of pocket before you can get your loan. That is illegal in the US, sp it's a dead giveaway. It doesn't matter what they tell you the money is for. A legitimate US lender would take any fees or transfer expenses from the money they have set aside to lend you and give you all the rest of it with no strings attached.
The Federal Trade Commission has published a circular warning consumers about how to spot a loan scam:
Apart from that, if you have been scammed and you gave this phony loan company sensitive personal information in order to qualify for this loan, please take every precaution against identity theft. Report the fraud to your police, to the FBI online at their Internet Crime Complaint Center at IC3.gov and to the Federal Trade Commission at FTC.gov.