Frankly speaking what you are describing is not likely a violation of the HIPAA.
It is true that the privacy rule applies to doctors and pharmacies. And so, for example, if a pharmacy was to give out protected health information to a third party (say, for example, a sister asked a doctor about the patients condition and the doctor released this information, to the sister, without patients consent? That would violate HIPAA.
And I get your point...by placing the condition on the prescription bottle, one could argue that others can see this.
However, the bottle is given to the patient...they have the ability to secure the information in their control.
So while you can file the complaint, I suspect this is not a HIPPA violation.
As for the second question, can you sue outside HIPAA?
Not likely. The same theory applies...if the pharmacy gives the patient the prescription bottle, they have the ability to secure (protect) that information if they choose. So it is not likely a violation of any duty to the patient on the party of the pharamacy or the doctor
This is the part of my job I don't like...when the law is not in favor of my customer. I wish I could tell you that you can sue to recover for this, but I can only provide you information based on the law so that you can act on the best available information to you...I wish I had better news, but can only hope you recognize and understand my predicament and don't shoot the messenger. I'm sorry!
Please let me know if you have more questions. I am happy to help if I can. Otherwise, please rate the answer so I may get credit for my work.