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It is actually not illegal to purchase a vehicle without a valid driver's license, it is illegal for them to let you drive off the lot without a valid license and it violates the loan agreement regarding having a valid license and insurance, which means you can be in breach of the finance agreement. The legal consequences are not really significant, since this is a contractual issue with the lenders they do business with and not a state or federal law violation.
The right to buy and own a car has nothing to do with your driving privileges. Thus, they made a mistake on the financing to allow you to drive off without a valid license, but the fact is that once you signed the contracts, you bought the car and they should have insisted you have a licensed driver drive off the lot.
Under the law, a used car sale is considered "as is" and without any warranty unless they gave you a written warranty to the contrary. A new car has a warranty for defects which the seller must repair or if it cannot be repaired they would have to replace or refund. However, the courts hold that once you signed that contract of purchase, you became bound to the deal and the dealer is under no legal obligation to renegotiate I am afraid.
What can happen if you do not correct the license issue is the lender can call the loan in default and seek to collect the loan in full or repossess the car until you comply and provide either a valid license or proof that the car is driven by and insured to a legally licensed driver. Thus, actually the potential consequences are on you and not the dealer for you not having the valid license I am afraid.
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