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First off, I can tell that that the call you received was almost certainly NOT from Microsoft. There are a lot of scams going around right now with people claiming to be Microsoft and most likely what would've happened, if you had actually gotten an answer, is that they would've tried to get some money from you.
Regarding this "temp license"--which is not something that Microsoft uses or gives out--what were they saying the license was for? Windows? The machine itself?
All right, have a good day.