Calculus and Above

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PART 2: Choosing the right...

PART 2: Choosing the right statistics

2. Recent budget cuts forced the city school district to increase class size in the elementary schools. To determine students reactions to the change the district administered a survey to students asking whether the larger classes were better, worse, or not different from the classes the previous year. The results from the survey will be used to describe the student’s attitude.

4. To examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and birth weight a researcher selects a sample of n=20 pregnant rats and mixes alcohol with their food for 2 weeks before the pups are born. One newborn pup is randomly selected from each subjects litter and the average birth weight for the n=20 pups is recorded it is knows that the average birth weight for regular rats without exposure to alcohol is µ 5.6 grams

6. Childhood participants in sports cultural groups and youth groups appears to be related to improved self-esteem for adolescents. In a representative study a researcher compares scores on a standardized self-esteem questionnaire for a sample of n=100 adolescents with a history of group participation and a separate sample of n=100 who have no history of group participation.

8. A researcher investigated different combinations of temperature and humidity to examine how hear affects performance. The researcher compared three temperature conditions (70, 80,90,) with a high humidity and a low humidity condition for each temperature. A separate group of participants was tested in each of the six different conditions. For each participant the researcher recorded the number or errors on a problem solving task the researcher would like to know how different combination of temperature and humidity influences performance.

10. A researcher is investigating the relationship between personality and birth order position. A sample of college students is classified into four birth order categories (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or later) and classified as being either extroverted or introverted.

12. A survey of female high school seniors includes one question asking for the amount of time spent on clothes, hair, and makeup each morning before school. The researcher plans to use the results as part of a general description of today’s high school students.

14. A researcher would like to determine whether infants, age 2 to 3 months. Show any evidence of color preference. The babies are positioned in front of a screen on which a set of four colored patches is presented. The four colors are red, green, blue and yellow. The researchers measure the amount of time each infant looks at each of the four colors during a 30 second test period. The color with the greatest time is identified as the preferred color for the child.

16. Standardized measures seem to indicate that the average level of anxiety has increased gradually over the past 50 years. In the 1950’s the average score on the child manifest anxiety scale was µ15.1. A researcher administers the same test to a sample of n=50 of today’s children to determine whether there has been a significant changed in the aver anxiety level.

20. Research has demonstrated that IQ score have been increasing generation by generation for years. A researcher would like to determine whether this trend can be described by a linear equation showing the relationship between age and IQ scores the same IQ test is given to a sample of 100 adults who range in age from 20 to 85 years old. The age and IQ scores are recorded for each person.

22. Research results indicate the physical attractive people are also perceived as being more intelligent. As a demonstration of this phenomenon a researcher obtained a set of n=25 photographs of male college students. The photographs were shown to a sample of female college students who used a 7-point scale to rate several characteristics including intelligence and attractiveness. For the person in each photo the average attractiveness rating and the average intelligence rating were computed for each photograph. The researcher plans to use the averages to determine whether there is relationship between perceived attractiveness and perceived intelligence.

24. There is some evidence suggesting that you are likely to improve your test score if you rethink and change answers on a multiple choice exam. To examine this phenomenon a teacher encouraged students to reconsider their answers before turning in exams. Students were asked to record their original answers and the changes that they made. When the exams were collected the teacher found that 18 students improved their grades by changing answers and only 7 students had lower grades with the changes. The teacher would like to know if this is statistically significant results.

2. Recent budget cuts forced the city school district to increase class size in the elementary schools. To determine students reactions to the change the district administered a survey to students asking whether the larger classes were better, worse, or not different from the classes the previous year. The results from the survey will be used to describe the student’s attitude.

4. To examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and birth weight a researcher selects a sample of n=20 pregnant rats and mixes alcohol with their food for 2 weeks before the pups are born. One newborn pup is randomly selected from each subjects litter and the average birth weight for the n=20 pups is recorded it is knows that the average birth weight for regular rats without exposure to alcohol is µ 5.6 grams

6. Childhood participants in sports cultural groups and youth groups appears to be related to improved self-esteem for adolescents. In a representative study a researcher compares scores on a standardized self-esteem questionnaire for a sample of n=100 adolescents with a history of group participation and a separate sample of n=100 who have no history of group participation.

8. A researcher investigated different combinations of temperature and humidity to examine how hear affects performance. The researcher compared three temperature conditions (70, 80,90,) with a high humidity and a low humidity condition for each temperature. A separate group of participants was tested in each of the six different conditions. For each participant the researcher recorded the number or errors on a problem solving task the researcher would like to know how different combination of temperature and humidity influences performance.

10. A researcher is investigating the relationship between personality and birth order position. A sample of college students is classified into four birth order categories (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or later) and classified as being either extroverted or introverted.

12. A survey of female high school seniors includes one question asking for the amount of time spent on clothes, hair, and makeup each morning before school. The researcher plans to use the results as part of a general description of today’s high school students.

14. A researcher would like to determine whether infants, age 2 to 3 months. Show any evidence of color preference. The babies are positioned in front of a screen on which a set of four colored patches is presented. The four colors are red, green, blue and yellow. The researchers measure the amount of time each infant looks at each of the four colors during a 30 second test period. The color with the greatest time is identified as the preferred color for the child.

16. Standardized measures seem to indicate that the average level of anxiety has increased gradually over the past 50 years. In the 1950’s the average score on the child manifest anxiety scale was µ15.1. A researcher administers the same test to a sample of n=50 of today’s children to determine whether there has been a significant changed in the aver anxiety level.

20. Research has demonstrated that IQ score have been increasing generation by generation for years. A researcher would like to determine whether this trend can be described by a linear equation showing the relationship between age and IQ scores the same IQ test is given to a sample of 100 adults who range in age from 20 to 85 years old. The age and IQ scores are recorded for each person.

22. Research results indicate the physical attractive people are also perceived as being more intelligent. As a demonstration of this phenomenon a researcher obtained a set of n=25 photographs of male college students. The photographs were shown to a sample of female college students who used a 7-point scale to rate several characteristics including intelligence and attractiveness. For the person in each photo the average attractiveness rating and the average intelligence rating were computed for each photograph. The researcher plans to use the averages to determine whether there is relationship between perceived attractiveness and perceived intelligence.

24. There is some evidence suggesting that you are likely to improve your test score if you rethink and change answers on a multiple choice exam. To examine this phenomenon a teacher encouraged students to reconsider their answers before turning in exams. Students were asked to record their original answers and the changes that they made. When the exams were collected the teacher found that 18 students improved their grades by changing answers and only 7 students had lower grades with the changes. The teacher would like to know if this is statistically significant results.

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