Yes, you definitely have recourse against your employer if you were either 1) treated based on making a complaint to HR about the wrongdoings of management or 2) treated unfairly on the basis of you having a disability. If you were asked questions that your employer knew would discriminate against you on the basis of your disability then that would give you enough for a cause of action against your employer.
You can and should file a complaint with the Department of Fair Employment and Housing for discrimination on the basis of disability in violation of the Fair Employment and Housing Act.
You can do so using the information available online here:http://www.dfeh.ca.gov/Complaints_ComplaintProcess.htm
The DFEH will investigate your complaint on your behalf and either file suit on your behalf or issue you a right to sue letter so you can pursue your claim against your employer through a private attorney.
Unfortunately, you would have to find a private attorney interested in the retaliation claim (violation of public policy) separately. Or, you could get your right to sue letter and then sue under both of causes of action at the same time.
All this said, if you got the promotion eventually anyway (as long as it's the same) it would be difficult to make out a case for damages, since that would traditionally come from the difference between the position you applied for and the one you're currently in if you had been denied the promotion entirely.
Please let me know if you have any follow up questions.
Thanks and best of luck!