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1. As of 2008, employees of Ford, Chrysler, and General

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1. As of 2008, employees of Ford, Chrysler, and General Motors represented by United Auto Workers earned ________ the income received by the average American worker in that same year.
A. half
B. twice
C. three times
D. four times
2. In recent years, public approval of organized labor and unions has
A. declined, but only slightly.
B. declined sharply.
C. increased considerably.
D. not changed much since the 1980s.
3. In the early nineteenth century, as trade unions showed their willingness to strike, employers reacted in two ways: They formed employer associations, and they turned to _______ to protect their interests.
A. the courts
B. the federal government C. the public
D. state legislatures
4 Most of the early trade unions attempted to negotiate _______ agreements with employers. A. craft-internship
B. union-shop
C. closed-shop
D. open-shop
5 After his election to the presidency of the AFL-CIO in 1996, John Sweeney declared a number of intentions. Which of the following was not one of Sweeney's intentions?
A. Recruitment efforts would be expanded on an unprecedented scale.
B. Minorities and women would take on more leadership roles in the federation. C. The size of the executive council would be reduced from 53 to 35.
D. Political action efforts would be expanded aggressively.
6 Currently, a poor record in recruiting _______ workers is the primary concern of organized labor.
A. white-collar
B. first-responder
C. blue-collar
D. industrial
7 Which of the following statements best characterizes the media's perspective on the organized labor movement?
A. Union featherbedding is seldom examined, but union criminality gets a lot of attention. B. When labor agreements are arrived at peacefully, they tend to be ignored.
C. Overall, media reporting on union activities has been evenhanded.
D. Media reporting avoids accounts of strikes and work stoppages.
8 The depression that began in 1837 lingered for 13 years. During this period,
A. faith in the capitalist system increased.
B. union strength increased, but only gradually.
C. the flood of immigrants slowed to a trickle.
D. socialist agricultural communities were established.
9 In regard to reasons managers resist unions, which of the following statement is false?
A. Managers may view unions as troublemakers.
B. Managers embrace the major values of the labor movement, but prefer company unions.
C. Managers may see unions as undermining employee loyalty.
D. Managers may view unions as outsiders.
10 Which of the following statements is true regarding the growth of unions during the Civil War? A. The first national unions were founded during the Civil War.
B. Abraham Lincoln had mixed feelings about organized labor.
C. Wartime inflation spurred union efforts to increase wages.
D. The wartime economy generated prosperity for the rich and poverty for everyone else.
11 Which of the following choices would you associate with the stunningly successful strike against the Wabash Railroad?
A. American Federation of Labor B. The depression of 1873
C. Knights of Labor
D. Molly Maguires
12 Which of the following does not describe union leadership up until recent years? A. It was innovative and imaginative.
B. It wasn't cognizant of the white-collar problem.
C. It was bureaucratic and uninspiring.
D. It was unimaginative regarding recruitment.
13 As president of the CIO, _______ cleared one obstacle to an AFL-CIO merger when he expelled communist-dominated unions from the federation.
A. George Meany B. ***** ***** C. Phillip Murray D. Walter Reuther
14 The first official recognition of the right of government employees to join unions and bargain collectively was expressed by
A. the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. B. Executive Order 11491.
C. the Labor Relations Authority.
D. Executive Order 10988.
15Which of the following statements is true regarding labor-relations consultants?
A. Most labor-relations consultants are either psychologists or lawyers.
B. By AFL-CIO estimates, managements' use of labor-relations consultants has declined.
C. Labor-relations consultants have been uniformly consistent in advising ethical and legal strategies for dealing with unions. D. The main purpose of labor-relations consultants is improving labor-management relations.
16 According the Abraham Maslow, _________ motivate(s) human behavior. A. unrecognized needs
B. self-interest
C. unsatisfied needs. D. immediate needs
17 Over the years, the judiciary has backed decisions of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) most of the time. When judicial rulings have been inconsistent with respect to prior NLRB rulings, the main cause has been
A. changing membership of the NLRB board.
B. the political party of the occupant of the White House. C. economic recession.
D. economic prosperity.
18 Which of the following statements is true of the Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932? A. It was moderate in its support for organized labor.
B. It effectively curbed employer hostility toward unions.
C. It helped to end the widespread unemployment of that time.
D. It outlawed yellow-dog contracts.
19 A union member who tried to take a local union out of one national union and affiliate it with another national union would be considered guilty of
A. treason.
B. unfair unionism. C. dual unionism.
D. a statutory offense.
20Regarding the era of judicial control prior to 1933, which of the following statements is true? A. Blacklisting was banned.
B. Railway workers were granted the right to bargain collectively with management.
C. The discharge of union "agitators" was frowned upon.
D. The use of court-issued injunctions was applied evenly to employers and employees.
21 Which of these statements is true regarding the Taft-Hartley Act? A. It overturned the specification of unfair employer practices.
B. Amendments to the act banned captive audience meetings.
C. It didn't displace the Wagner Act.
D. It offers no support for organized labor.
22 Which of the following has not been considered a mandatory subject for collective bargaining? A. Health insurance
B. Seniority
C. The grievance procedure
D. Retiree benefits
23 Following a*****decision, employers may hire permanent replacement workers in response to a strike, unless the strike is related to
A. unfair labor practices on the part of the employer. B. wages that are below average for an industry.
C. hours beyond the standard eight-hour workday. D. working conditions.
24 Employees are assured a "bill of rights" that union officers can not violate under the _______ Act. A. Taft-Hartley
B. Landrum-Griffin
C. Norris-LaGuardia
D. Wagner
25. Which of these statements is true regarding locals unions?
A. There's a strong correlation between the size of a national union and the number of locals.
B. There's a moderate correlation between the size of a national union and the number of its locals.
C. The officer-election process at the national level is more democratic than the process for electing local officers. D. Most local union officers work alongside fellow workers at full-time jobs.
26 Regarding the trend toward national union mergers, which of the following statements is false?
A. Under the AFL-CIO system, all national union mergers have been voluntary.
B. Most mergers have involved the merger of a number of small unions into a single union.
C. Steadily rising administrative costs have encouraged mergers.
D. Most European countries have a total of about 15 unions.
27 Conrad and Clara are discussing the decision of the United Auto Workers to establish the Public Review Board. Conrad argues that the board is ineffective because it nearly always endorses decisions of the UAW executive board. Clara disagrees, arguing that the review board has been quite willing to overturn executive board rulings. Who is correct?
A. Both Conrad and Clara are partially correct.
B. Clara is correct.
C. Neither Conrad nor Clara is correct.
D. Conrad is correct.
28 What redress is available to the AFL-CIO if affiliated national unions violate constitutionally established federation rules?
A. The national union can be fined for each instance of a violation. B. The miscreant national can be expelled from the federation.
C. There are no avenues of address, save gentle persuasion.
D. The AFL-CIO can sue the national union in the federal courts.
29 Under current U.S. labor law, when can the NLRB conduct a certification election? A. If at least two unions express an interest in organizing a bargaining unit
B. If the employer agrees to participate in the election
C. At the request of a single employee
D. At the request of an elected federal official who represents the employer's congressional district
30. During the Clinton administration, NLRB chairman William Gould was successful in implementing A. the recognition of a union without an election if 60 percent or more employees voted for the union.
B. allowing modified collective bargaining when as few as 20 percent of employees voiced pro-union sentiments.
C. the practice of delivering an NLRB decision in days, not months.
D. a plan to allow employees to vote on their union sentiments by mail.
31 According to the authors of your text, one is justified in saying that the modern labor movement in America began in
A. 1933. B. 1935. C. 1947. D. 1926.
32 In preparation for negotiating a labor contact, research conducted by either party A. will usually focus on justifying management positions.
B. can explore just about any contract-related issue.
C. offers the only viable approach to adopting precedents for "just cause."
D. will focus on community wage levels.
33 Suppose you're a union representative engaged in negotiating a labor contract. You assume that the wage and benefit levels of your particular bargaining unit shouldn't fall too far behind or move too far beyond the wage and benefit levels of other bargaining units in your industry. What determiner of basic wage rates guides your thinking?
A. Ability to pay
B. The comparative norm C. The fairness doctrine D. Cost-of-living
34. Illustrating "imaginative statistical interpretations," Walter O'Malley complained to the media that the franchise had lost money when, in fact, the season's profits were only a bit less than $4 million. What franchise did O'Malley represent?
A. Los Angeles Dodgers B. New York Giants
C. New England Patriots D. Boston Red Sox
35. Which of the following statements is true regarding the cost of living?
A. Since 1900, consumer prices have increased by a factor of 10.
B. In labor negotiations, cost-of-living criteria are used more often than comparative norm data.
C. Cost-of-living trends can't be based on the available historical data from the Consumer Price Index (CPI). D. Inflation tends to increase markedly during wartime.
36. A number of negotiation issues are complicated by interacting variables. In this context, what variable was illustrated in your text's discussion of United Parcel Service of America (UPS) concessions granted to the Teamsters in 1997?
A. Robust economic health
B. Technological innovations
C. Political problems within the union
D. Failure to assess the other side's strengths
37. According to both the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) and the American Arbitration Association (AAA), arbitration awards time lags
A. are brief and inconsequential.
B. average anywhere from 10 to 350 days.
C. average about 250 days.
D. have resulted in a nearly universal switch to miniarbitration.
38. Regarding the nature of grievance procedures, which of the following is false? A. Grievances are complaints citing some violation of a standing labor contract.
B. Universally, grievance procedures are meant to provide bilateral resolutions.
C. Grievance rulings can generally be appealed to higher levels of authority.
D. Instances in which grievances are filed by employers are virtually nonexistent.
39. Paula and Craig are discussing the differences between permanent and ad hoc arbitrators. Paula asserts that the majority of labor contracts specify a permanent arbitrator, but that ad hoc arbitrators are preferred when an employer does business in a number of different locations. Craig agrees with Paula's first point, but asserts that permanent arbitrators are favored when the employer operates in several different locations. Who is correct?
A. Craig is partially correct, but both of Paula's assertions are incorrect. B. Paula is correct.
C. Craig is correct.
D. Paula is partially correct, but both of Craig's assertions are incorrect.
40. With respect to escalator clauses, which statement is true?
A. The trend toward longer-term labor contracts is likely to decrease the use of escalator schemes. B. They provide an alternative to cost-of-living pay adjustments.
C. Management tends to have a positive view of escalator-pay adjustments.
D. They're normally based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI).
41. Which of the following is not a basic objective of the grievance procedure? A. A grievance procedure must include no less than five steps.
B. A time limit is placed on each step.
C. Disputes are to be resolved in an orderly and friendly manner.
D. A sequence of steps is normally provided for resolving a grievance.
42. Which of the following items, according to your text, have not in some way characterized labor contract negotiations?
A. Rational deliberation
B. Poker-type strategies
C. One-man, one-vote democracy
D. Rhetoric and name-calling
43. The principle of equal pay for equal work is denied when contracts call for a two-tier wage system in the context of _______ bargaining,
A. concessionary B. cooperative C. comparative D. coercive
44. Regarding Boulwarism, which statement is true?
A. Lemuel R. Boulware was an independent labor-relations consultant.
B. In spite of court decisions, "Boulwaristic" practices have appeared within the last decade. C. The NLRB has implied, but never ruled, that GE was guilty of bad-faith bargaining.
D. GE's "Boulwaristic" practices, although modified, continue to this day.
45. In 1960, the Supreme Court handed down decisions in three cases that came to be called the trilogy cases. In general terms, what was the effect of these decisions on organized labor?
A. Labor contracts were required to include an arbitration clause.
B. Arbitration could no longer be the proper forum for deliberating constitutional rights. C. The arbitration process was made more difficult.
D. The arbitration process was strongly encouraged.
46. With respect to negotiating wage rates and an employer's ability to pay, which of the following statements is true?
A. If a company has no profits, its inability to pay is obvious.
B. The ratio of labor costs to total costs is a significant factor.
C. An economic formula is often used to determine the relationship between profits and ability to pay. D. The way profits are to be used should have no bearing on ability-to-pay concerns.
47. In general, unions object to _______ approaches to work scheduling because they're viewed as management tools for reducing overtime and increasing the work pace.
A. flextime
B. differential shift pay C. piece rate
D. flat rate
48. How was the hypothetical case of Harold Swift finally resolved? A. Swift's case wasn't resolved; it's still under arbitration.
B. Swift was suspended without pay for 10 days.
C. Swift's termination was upheld based on the union committee's recommendation. D. Swift was reinstated in his job, but suspended for 3 days without pay.
49. The management of Burgess and Bigger, Inc. decide to establish a job-evaluation scheme to justify pay
differentials for different jobs. The company's resulting evaluation system would consider all the following factors except
A. required job skills.
B. working conditions inherent in the job. C. job responsibilities.
D. cost of living relative to inflation.
50. When several unions present a united front in dealing with corporations grown to titanic size through mergers, the unions are engaging in _______ bargaining.
A. consultative B. coordinated C. cooperative D. contentious
51. When preparing to negotiate a new contract, you can assume that so-called _______ clauses will be needed to address issues such as employee discipline, seniority rights, workload sizes, and subcontracting.
A. administrative B. supplemental C. fundamental D. derogatory
52. Which management-rights theory maintains that all managerial decisions reside with a company's managers, except for those specifically limited by a standing labor contract or by accepted past practice?
A. Residual
B. Codetermination C. Trusteeship
D. Reciprocal
53. In general, under many labor contracts, superseniority is granted to A. nearly all union officers.
B. employees considered "exceptional" or "specially skilled," regardless of seniority. C. union officers crucial to the grievance process.
D. employees with more than 20 years of service.
54. Even though Blanton's workplace is unionized, Blanton isn't a member of the union and feels no pressure to join the union. However, he's required to make regular financial contributions to the union. Based on this information, Blanton's workplace is most likely organized as a/an _______ shop.
A. preferential
B. agency
C. maintenance-of-membership D. union
55. Which of the following terms does not refer to management philosophies that call for day-to-day decision-making by employees?
A. Employee involvement B. Worker participation
C. Quality of work life D. ESOP
56. Which of the following tasks is not a standard strategy for controlling health-care costs? A. Performing cost analysis
B. Making premium contributions
C. Increasing copayments
D. Increasing deductible amounts
57. Which of the following statements is true regarding seniority?
A. Seniority isn't a strong motivator when it comes to remaining with an employer.
B. Merit, not seniority, has long been the main determinant of promotions in the U.S. Army.
C. Most recent employee-benefit programs have been geared almost exclusively to seniority.
D. Rewarding employees on the basis of ability is easier than rewarding them on the basis of seniority.
58. A majority of bargaining agreements specify pension funding by way of employee contributions to a 401 (k) account, or some other type of alternative tax-deferred savings plan. Under such plans, the most common employer matching contribution is _______ percent.
A. 20 B. 30 C. 40 D. 50
59. Which of the following statements is true regarding the Employee Retirement Act of 1974 (ERISA)? A. The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is funded by regular employee contributions.
B. If a pension is to be fully vested after seven years of service, it must be 20 percent vested after three years.
C. Under ERISA, all employee pensions must be vested after 5 years of service.
D. PBGC funding levels have remained robust and adequate over the years.
60 Which of the following statements is true of no-strike clauses?
A. Under one kind of no-strike clause, unions may strike under limited circumstances. B. An absolute and unconditional surrender of the right to strike is unlawful.
C. Union leadership can't be held accountable for unauthorized wildcat strikes.
D. Taft-Hartley is silent regarding union responsibility for a wildcat strike.
61 What kind of arrangement allows employers, given authority granted in writing by the employee, to automatically deduct union dues from workers' paychecks and forward those funds to the union?
A. Card check B. Union dues C. Union security D. Checkoff
62 Jane's workplace is unionized, but she's not a member of the union. She's required to make regular financial contributions to the union. You can reasonably assume that Jane's workplace rules represent an effort to compensate for the fact that a union is obligated to represent all members of a bargaining unit, given that the government has provided no remedy for the _______ problem.
A. union shop B. free rider
C. compensation D. "just cause"
63 Management isn't expected to provide either work or cash compensation in cases in which the employer has notified employees that they shouldn't punch in at the workplace under most _______ pay agreements.
A. promissory B. premium
C. compensatory D. reporting
64 J. B. Jones, a machinist with 18 years of service, can expect to be eligible for severance pay for any of the following reasons, except
A. permanent disability.
B. refusing an alternative job offer by the employer.
C. a plant merger.
D. retirement before the employee is entitled to a pension.
65 Which of the following statements is true of Section 14b of the Taft-Hartley Act? A. It has been unenforceable in states with weak union representation.
B. It forbids decertification elections.
C. It's consistent with the federal preemptive doctrine.
D. It allows states to pass right-to-work laws.
Submitted: 1 year ago.
Category: Business and Finance Homework
Expert:  JaySHarrison replied 1 year ago.

Hello Mari, my name is ***** ***** Business Mathematics teacher, with over 5 years experience as a district manager for a finance company. I will be assiting you with this assignment. What level course is this, and when do you need the answer by?

Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Human Resources Management I need this answer as soon as possible
Expert:  JaySHarrison replied 1 year ago.

I am going to opt out to give other Experts an opportunity to work on these 65 questions.