As soon as possible I do not want to be stuck at the last minute, Thai assign is to important to this class, I will not have the option to get an extension it must be on time.
Just let me know if you can do it for me please, or not I don't want to wait until the last minute. I gave you all of the information that you need for the assignment, did I miss any thing? Let me know please.
I'll have it before midnight tomorrow. Is that acceptable?
Here's the assignment: https://app.box.com/s/u8p6nx9i4d8p3uhqusfe
Can you please do this assignment for me please, this is all of the information for the assignment that you would need .
Consider the constructivist and explicit instruction views of teaching reading.
Develop a chart that compares and contrasts the two views. Include two to three reading activities for each philosophy and two to three assessments that correlate with each philosophy.
Write a summary essay of 1,000-1,250 words in which you describe both approaches, and documents the approach that you prefer.
Use the GCU eLibrary to research a minimum of five peer-reviewed articles that can be used in support of your content.
While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment
This is the Lecture.
The best way to teach reading has been debated throughout the history of the United States. In ancient Greece and Rome and during the Middle Ages, instructors taught their students the names and sounds of the letters, which is an instructional practice that is still widely accepted by most teachers today. Before the beginning of the 19th century, the only approach used to teach early reading was the alphabetic method that involved learning the letters and corresponding sounds for the letter symbols (Venetsky, 1987). Horace Mann brought the idea of the whole word method of learning to read from European theorists. In the mid-1850s, the McGuffey Eclectic Readers, which focused on the phonic method and the word method, were the readers of choice for the teaching of reading. Later in the 1800s, phonics was again in vogue. In the 1920s, the Dick and Jane series again brought an emphasis on the whole word method. This whole word method, sometimes called the look-say approach, had little focus on phonics and was dominant through the 1960s.
Beginning in the mid-1960s and continuing through the late 1900s, several important research studies indicated that the learning of phonics was essential and superior to any other method for learning to read (Chall, 1966; Adams, 1990). Legislatures in several states, including Arizona, passed laws mandating phonics instruction be included in teacher preparation programs and in classrooms.
Integrated Language Arts and Balanced Literacy
Today, educators know that an integrated approach to teaching language arts is most appropriate. Language-arts skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) are integrated across the curriculum in all content areas. Reading is a total integrative process that includes affective, cognitive, and perceptual domains. Effective schools include opportunities for students to read and write across the curriculum.
Cunningham and Hall (1998) describe four components of a balanced approach to reading instruction that represents the four major historical approaches. These four instructional blocks of 30-40 minutes include guided reading, self-selected reading, writers' workshop, and working with words. In the early stages of literacy, students learn phonemic awareness followed by phonics, with later focus on fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension.
Constructivist versus Explicit Instruction
Although educators' beliefs about language arts rest on a continuum that stretches from explicit, direct instruction to a constructivist view sometimes called whole language, most educators fall somewhere in the middle. The constructivist view of instruction indicates that past experiences and beliefs influence learning along with interactions with other students in the classroom. Within a constructivist or whole language classroom there would be:
· Active participation;
· Small-group discussions;
· Concepts introduced within context;
· Prior knowledge used to construct new knowledge; and
· Authentic literature.
On the other side of the continuum lies systematic, direct instruction of skills in which students learn in a research-based manner. Some characteristics of this method include direct instruction of phonemic awareness, decoding skills, and rules of language.
Assessment and Instruction Link
The main educational purposes of assessment are to guide instruction and to monitor student achievement. Educators should assess what is taught and use assessment to determine what needs to be taught. Assessment that is aligned with the curriculum should reflect the students' mastery of the state standards. Assessment is an ongoing process that informs instruction; it is essential that ongoing assessment be used to monitor student learning and to inform instruction.
Of course, literacy begins before students enter formal public schools. Children with parents who speak with them and read to them come to school with the prerequisite skills in reading readiness. The role of the home culture plays a key part in students' views of the world and the way they organize space and time. Teachers who teach in culturally sensitive ways address the needs of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Reading has been taught since early Greek and Roman times; a variety of different approaches have developed through the years. Today, most educators support an integrated, balanced approach to the teaching of reading and language arts. It is often said that students in grades K-3 are in school to learn to read, while in later years they read to learn.
Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Chall, J. (1966). Learning to read: The great debate. San Diego: Harcourt Brace.
Cunningham, P. M., & Hall, D. P. (1998). The four blocks: A balanced framework for literacy in primary classrooms in teaching every child everyday. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Venetsky, R. L. (1987). A history of the American reading textbook. The Elementary School Journal, 87, 247-265.
This is the Rubric
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
Hi ,can you do it as soon as possible it's due on Sunday 11pm you time.
So are you doing the assignment for me?
I hope so because now it's the last minute. Will I have it on time?
Here's the assignment: https://app.box.com/s/lophwv641sblk618exc3
Can you do this assignment for me please
Consider the importance of using a variety of assessments in the teaching of reading.
Create a chart that identifies various types of informal, formal, formative, and summative assessments (e.g., DRA, running records, DIBELS, etc.) used to assess children's reading abilities.
Compare and contrast a minimum of five assessments.
Use the GCU eLibrary to access peer-reviewed articles and/or other research-based internet sites in support of your content.
Assessment and Differentiation of Instruction
Assessments, whether formal or informal, are used to inform instruction and guide teaching. Formal or standardized assessments are often used to evaluate a literacy program, while informal assessments are the tools that teachers frequently use in the classroom on a daily basis. Assessments can also provide information on strategies to differentiate instruction for students who are learning English and for those with special needs.
Formal and Informal Reading Assessment
Formal assessments include standardized tests in reading and language arts that are normally given annually to determine a whole district's or state's academic progress. These formal measures are designed to compare individuals and groups with an established norm. Short-answer or multiple-choice responses are typical components of formal assessments.
Informal assessments include teacher-developed tests, anecdotal records, checklists, observations, and student work samples. These informal assessments are based on direct measures of a student's ability on work that takes place in the classroom. In the literacy classroom, Peregoy and Boyle (2001) list informal measures to gauge reading instruction. The list includes:
· Student journals;
· Learning logs;
· Running records of oral reading; and
Ruddell and Ruddell (1995) provide the following guidelines for classroom-based assessment, allowing that they should be:
· Based on observations of students as they engage in authentic learning tasks.
· Tied directly to instructional goals and teaching.
· Continuous, based on observations over a period of time.
· Considerate of the diversity of students' cultural, linguistic, and special needs.
· Collaborative, providing opportunities for students to evaluate their own work.
· Multidimensional, based on a variety of observations, in a variety of settings, using a variety of measures.
· Based on current research and theory concerning language, literacy, and knowledge construction.
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
Standardized tests refer to the conditions under which the test is administered. This implies that the conditions are standardized to compare the results fairly. Two types of standardized tests are norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced tests. Both tests are used to make comparisons. In norm-referenced tests, students are compared with a representative sample of students with similar characteristics, such as grade level. The scores indicate whether the students performed at, above, or below the average of the larger group. The norming process seldom takes into account factors such as socioeconomic, cultural, or linguistic differences, and the results are often published in the media to compare districts or regions across the country. Classroom teachers may be able to use some of the data to guide instruction, but they would be better served by using alternate methods to diagnose student needs. A wider purpose for these tests is their use as a screening instrument. Sometimes students are "red flagged" for the possibility of placement in remediation or gifted programs based on the results of these tests. Multiple and varied evaluation methods serve students more appropriately and effectively.
Another type of standardized test is a criterion-referenced test. In this type of test, the student is being compared to a specified performance objective. For example, the criterion on a reading test might be to answer at least 80% of the comprehension questions correctly. The informal reading inventories are criterion-referenced because they set levels of performance on word recognition and comprehension to determine independent, instructional, frustration, and listening capacity levels. Often, schools use criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) as quarterly or semester exams within grades or disciplines. One of the weaknesses of these tests is that the criterion is set in an arbitrary way. How is it determined that 80% is an accurate level of achievement to indicate mastery of a learning objective? However, the advantage to CRTs is that the test can give teachers and students feedback on specific skills, which can be useful in planning future instruction.
English Language Learners (ELLs)
In order to differentiate reading instruction for ELLs, teachers need to consider the importance of the language acquisition process. According to Cummins (1979), students may be orally fluent in a few years and have Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS); it may take up to 7 years to become academically fluent with Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). Age, as well as social, cultural, cognitive, and personality factors also impact the language acquisition process.
Teachers can support ELLs during the literacy process by:
· Providing scaffolding to assist students in their literacy development.
· Tapping prior knowledge of previous learning opportunities in school and at home.
· Having high expectations.
· Using graphic organizers and other tools to supplement instructional delivery.
· Structuring cooperative learning opportunities so students can process complex information in a stress-free environment.
· Pre-teaching and re-teaching of language structures in order to reinforce the skills and strategies.
Tam, Heward, and Heng (2006) indicated that ELLs who were struggling readers often faced additional factors of poverty and diminished opportunities for success in the mainstream classrooms and required intensive instructional interventions. Students who do not learn to read in the primary grades are often referred for special education. Tam et al. found that the three teaching strategies of vocabulary instruction, error correction, and repeated readings have been shown to improve students' word-recognition skills and reading fluency necessary for effective reading comprehension.
Students with Special Needs
Students who are receiving special education have a variety of specific accommodations and modifications to support the Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals and objectives. Modifications can be made to seating, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic areas. Assistive technology, from simple devices such as a pencil grip to high-tech equipment, is also often part of the IEP. Gifted students are provided differentiation of instruction through extension or acceleration of the literacy process.
Students who are referred to special education are most often referred due to reading difficulties. Programs that are preventative in scope, such as Success For All (Slavin, 2004) or Reading Recovery (Schwartz, 2005) seem to hold promise.
Aside from informing instruction, one of the most important roles of informal assessment is to facilitate the development of differentiation strategies to assist all students in the literacy process.
Cummins, J. (1979). Cognitive-academic language proficiency, linguistic, interdependence optimal age and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 197-205.
Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2001). Reading, writing, & learning in ESL: A resource book for K-12 teachers. New York: Longman.
Ruddell, R. B., & Ruddell, M. R. (1995). Teaching children to read and write: Becoming an influential teacher. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Schwartz, R. M. (2005). Literacy learning of at-risk first grade students in the Reading Recovery early intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 257-267.
Slavin, R. E. (2004). Built to last. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 61-66.
Tam, K. Y., Heward, W., & Heng, M. A. (2006). A reading instruction intervention program for English-language learners who are struggling readers. The Journal of Special Education, 40(2), 79-93.
Please let me know if you are doing the assignment, I really need to know what to do Thanks Bernice
Are you working on my assignment,? I am getting worried I have not heard back from you since yesterday PLEASE LET ME KNOW WHAT TIME TO EXPECT THE ASSIGNMENT?.
Hello Gnaritas Did you get my post about the assignment? I did not get an answer back as to if you could do the assignment or not? Please let me know if you can do it for me so that I will not be stuck @ the last minute? Thanks Bernice.
Can you still do the assignment for me today
I would appreciate it so much than I can post it
Thanks Bernice .
I posted this assignment early this week, as a matter a fact I posted it on Monday, did you not get it?
Here it is again an you do this assignment for me let me know?
Create a graphic organizer listing and defining the five research-based elements of reading. Be sure to include corresponding activities and assessments for each element.
Write an essay of 1,000-1,250 words, outlining five to seven techniques to teach phonics and promote phonemic awareness.
1. Define phonics and phonemic awareness, and explain their importance in learning to read.
2. Include differentiated strategies for ELLs, special needs, and gifted students.
3. Include an assessment for each differentiated strategy.
4. Name any manipulatives or cooperative-group activities used.
5. What actions would you take for a student who may not demonstrate progress?
Use the GCU eLibrary to research a minimum of three to five peer-reviewed articles that can be used in support of your content.
While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment
While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
The two most important early literacy instructional areas are phonemic awareness and phonics. Although phonemic awareness and phonics are two distinct areas of reading instruction, the terms are often incorrectly used interchangeably.
Phonemic awareness plays a critical role in the early stages of reading acquisition. Yopp (1992) defines phonemic awareness as "the awareness that phonemes exist as abstractable and manipulable components of spoken language" (p. 696). It is the ability to reflect on speech and experiment with it smallest components, phonemes. "Phonemic awareness is not phonics and not auditory discrimination" (p. 696). The progression of phonemic awareness in kindergarten and early first grade includes the students' ability to:
· Hear rhymes or alliteration;
· Blend sounds to make a word;
· Count phonemes in words;
· Identify the beginning, middle, and final sounds in words;
· Substitute one phoneme for another; and
· Delete phonemes from words.
Phonemic awareness has been identified as the single most powerful predictor of success in learning to read (Yopp, 1992).
Adams (1990) wrote that phonemic awareness is an important factor in learning to read as it includes learning the English alphabetic system and how print represents the spoken word. Phonemic awareness is essential in learning to read and spell.
Within the kindergarten classroom, phonemic awareness activities are embedded in instruction that is rich in language with many opportunities to actively work with and manipulate sounds. Adams (1990) recommended that assessments for phonemic awareness progress during mid-year of kindergarten so that interventions can be aggressively introduced. Early interventions with direct instruction are extremely important for children at risk; however, remediation should be provided whenever a lack of phonemic awareness is diagnosed. Schwartz (1995) recommends twenty minutes a day, three to four times a week, for improvements.
The inability to develop phonemic awareness is also a causal factor in diagnosis of students with reading disabilities. The second most reliable predictor of reading success, after phonemic awareness, is letter recognition.
The teaching of phonics continues to be a controversial issue in schools. Although some children intuitively learn phonics, all students benefit from a research-based structured program of instruction. Although instruction can be structured, students should be given opportunities to practice these skills in decodable text that contains the sounds and symbols being taught. The best instruction provides a connection between what students learn in phonics instruction with the literature they read.
The instruction of phonics centers on learning discrete elements of the sound-symbol relationships of English orthography. In English, the spoken sounds, or phonemes, are represented by written symbols, or graphemes. There are 44 sounds and 26 letters in the English language. In phonics, the student learns the relationships between these sounds and symbols and how to use this information to decode words. There are six vowels that can be used in various combinations to represent different sounds and some consonants have more than one sound. This mismatch between letters and sounds often causes confusion for beginning learners, older students, and even adults.
High quality, intensive, structured phonics instruction is one of the most effective ways to prevent reading difficulties. The quality of the training of future teachers and educators in effective teaching strategies is essential to the ability of teachers to provide this instruction. Blevins (1998) identifies ten important research findings about phonics:
· Phonics instruction can help all children learn to read.
· Explicit phonics instruction is more beneficial than implicit instruction.
· Most poor readers have weak phonics skills and a strategy imbalance.
· Phonics knowledge has a powerful effect on decoding ability.
· Good decoders rely less on context clues than poor decoders.
· The reading process relies on a reader's attention to each letter in a word.
· Phonemic awareness is necessary for phonics instruction to be effective.
· Phonics instruction improves spelling ability.
· A teacher's knowledge of phonics affects his or her ability to teach phonics.
· It is possible to overdo phonics instruction.
Phonemic awareness and phonics instruction are the foundational supports for a student's ability to become proficient reader. Educators need to be trained in how to best teach phonemic awareness and phonics.
Adams, M. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Blevins, W. (1998). Phonics from A to Z: A practical guide. New York: Scholastic.
Schwartz, D. M. (1995), Ready, set, read − 20 minutes each day is all you'll need. Smithsonian, 25(11), 3-11.
Yopp, H. K. (1992). Developing phonemic awareness in young children. The Reading Teacher, 45, 696-703.
Yes I sent it on Monday evening it's due 11pm as before on Sunday evening, can you do it before you go or after you return, I have no idea what happens to my post. Please let me know
Did you receive my last post to you? I am not sure that you did please let me know
Are you back? Did you receive my message I hope you are, because I only had one late turn in that was last week, I did send you a message on last week. My assignment still need to be done, so I still need your help, so can you do it by 11pm tonight your time?
Gwyn, I am posting it again.
The Writing Process
Review the 6+1 Traits, found on Education Northwest's Regional Education Laboratory website. Create a graphic organizer that includes a definition for each trait, as well as an activity that supports learning.
Writing and Spelling
In a balanced literacy program, writing should be given equal time with reading; however, in most literacy programs reading significantly outweighs writing instruction (Rasinski & Padak, 2004). Instruction in writing is equally as important and has a positive impact on reading.
Process writing consists of five interrelated stages (Rasinski & Padak, 2004). In the prewriting stage, students generate ideas for writing with main ideas and supporting information. Students use skills such as brainstorming, questioning, and clustering of information. The drafting stage allows students to get ideas written quickly. Strategies to support this stage include journal writing and learning logs. The revision stage includes the rearranging of information and changing sentences to support the purpose and audience for the paper. Teacher conferences and peer response groups are important strategies for revisions. The editing stage includes working on punctuation, grammar, and mechanics. Peer editing, proof-reading, and spelling checks are appropriate activities for this stage. The publishing stage involves sharing writing with others and creating a classroom library of student work.
6+1 Trait® Writing for Assessment and Instruction
Through use of the 6+1 Trait® Writing model (Northwest Regional Educational Lab, n.d.), teachers have a framework to formatively evaluate student writing though an analytical process. The program focuses on these writing traits and evaluates each area separately:
· Ideas: The meaning and development of the message.
· Organization: The internal structure of the piece.
· Voice: The way the writer brings the topic to life.
· Word choice: The specific vocabulary the writer uses to convey meaning.
· Sentence fluency: The way the words and phrases flow throughout the text.
· Conventions: The mechanical correctness of the piece.
· Presentation: The overall appearance of the work.
After instruction on the traits, students are able to revise their work using the evaluative tools for each trait.
Spelling has been traditionally considered a separate subject in school with students memorizing weekly lists of words. Some researchers now feel that the acquisition of English spelling is a complex process that needs to be imbedded in a language-arts program (Gentry, 1982; Razinski & Padak, 2004).
Since English is not a phonetic language and letters can represent more than one sound, learning to spell is difficult. As young children try to attach sounds to letters and attempt to spell, they typically use some version of invented, or temporary, spelling. With invented spelling, students are able to convey that writing represents meaning and purpose. Invented spelling occurs in the developmental phase, where children only write the letters for the sounds they hear in a word. When children use invented spelling, they demonstrate their understanding of letters, the sounds associated with each letter, and that words are made up of letters representing the sounds of oral language.
Gentry (1982) described five stages of spelling:
1. Pre-communicative: Children use letters but show no knowledge of the letter-sound correspondence.
2. Semi-phonetic: Children understand letter-sound correspondence but use rudimentary or single letters to represent words.
3. Phonetic: Children use a letter or group of letters to represent every speech sound in a systematic way.
4. Transitional: Children begin to assimilate the conventional way to represent sounds.
5. Correct: Children know the English orthographic system and its basic rules.
Writing is an important skill in literacy development and deserves the same emphasis as reading instruction. The use of process writing and programs such as 6+1® Traits Writing can support better student writing. Students should have opportunities to write across the curriculum and in all subject areas on a regular basis.
Gentry, J. R. (1982). An analysis of development spelling in GNYS AT WRK. The Reading Teacher, 36, 192-200.
Northwest Regional Educational Lab, (n.d.) Retrieved march 26, 2010, from http://www.nwrel.org/comm/centers/index.php
Rasinski, T., & Padak, N. (2004). Beyond consensus−beyond balance: Toward a comprehensive literacy curriculum. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 20(1), 91-102
The Writing Process
Gwyn I really hop you can do this ai have been posting this all day
What day and time is the assignment due? If it is due today, Sunday I will not be able to help you? I already have four projects scheduled for today.
I have been posting all day, I am really in trouble here , Yes it is due tonight ,
I have no idea what was going on with Just answer I have been posting since Friday night I final got some one today to look into was going on, I final got some one that new how to fix it problem, Yes I really need you help.
I didn't hear from you, After my last post can you please do the assignment for me? And yo u let me know what time it will be ready?
I am still waiting , how much longer?
I am still waiting, are you going to do the assignment? should I let my Professor that I will post it tomorrow? It almost past due I need to let her know something please let me know so I can know how to handle this assignment? I know that you are very busy, I just want to tell my Professor that I am late with this assignment, if that is the case.