OK all done. I am a little late because I underestimated how long it would take. It is really long. Click here
to retrieve. I also posted it below, but it is soooooo long:
Short answers due on the 19th.
Compare and contrast male and female gang members.: Males out number females 20 to 1; Girls mature out of gangs at an earlier age; Females commit less crimes and are significantly less involved in violent activity than are males; males tend to be more involved in selling drugs than are females at a ratio 2.53 to 1.
Determine the family and school risk factors for gang involvement; For school, the risk factors are poor school performance; low educational aspirations, especially among females; negative labeling by teachers; high levels of anti-social behavior; few teacher role models; educational frustration; low attachment to school; learning difficulties. For family, the risk factors are family disorganization, including broken homes and parental drug and/or alcohol abuse; family violence, neglect and drug addiction; family members in gangs; lack of adult and parental role models, parent criminality, parents with violent attitudes, siblings with anti-social behaviors; extreme economic deprivation.
Discuss the three Rs of the gang culture: Reputation, Respect and Retaliation/Revenge.
(1) REPUTATION/REP: This is of critical concern to "gang bangers" (gang members). A rep extends not only to each individual, but to the gang as a whole. In some groups, status (or rank) is gained within the gang by having the most "juice" based largely on one's reputation. While being "juiced" is very important, the manner by which the gang member gains the "juice" is just as important. Gang members may embellish their past gang activities in an attempt to impress others. Gang members may freely admit crimes to enhance their feeling of power.
(2) RESPECT: This is something everyone wants and some gang members carry their desire for it to the extreme. Respect is sought for not only the individual, but also for one's set or gang, family, territory, and various other things, real or perceived in the mind of the "gang banger". Some gangs require, by written or spoken regulation, that the gang member must always show disrespect to rival gang members. (Referred to in gang slang as dis). If a gang member witnesses a fellow member failing to dis a rival gang through hand signs, graffiti, or a simple "mad dog" or stare-down, they can issue a "violation" to their fellow posse member and he/she can actually be "beaten down" by their own gang as punishment. After dis has been issued, if it is witnessed, the third "R" will become evident.
(3) RETALIATION/REVENGE: It must be understood that in gang culture, no challenge goes unanswered. Many times, drive-by shootings and other acts of violence follow an event perceived as a "dis" (disrespect). A common occurrence is a confrontation between a gang set and single rival "gang banger." Outnumbered, he departs the area and returns with his "homeboys" to complete the confrontation to keep his reputation intact. This may occur immediately or it may follow a delay for planning and obtaining the necessary equipment to complete the retaliatory strike. It must also be understood that many acts of violence are the result of bad drug deals or infringement on drug territory. Some question the authenticity of gang rivalry in shootings and other acts of violence. However, if a group of individuals are together committing either random or pre- planned violence, aren't they a gang? If the gang aspect is learned about, many crimes can be solved through the use of accurate intelligence gathering techniques by law enforcement agencies dealing with this problem. In gang banging, today's witness is tomorrow's suspect, is the next day's victim.
Name and explain various juvenile justice responses to the youth gang problem
In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s(OJJDP’s) supported the completion of phases one and two of the National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program.
This program assessed youth gang research, including definitions, the nature and causes of the youth gang phenomenon, and the effectiveness of program strategies used by various agencies and organizations in the community. following common elements appear to be associated with sustained reduction of gang problems:
-Community leaders must recognize the presence of gangs
and seek to understand the nature and extent of the local gang
problem through a comprehensive and systematic assessment
of the gang problem.
u The combined leadership of the justice system and the
community must focus on the mobilization of institutional
and community resources to address gang problems.
u Those in principal roles must develop a consensus on definitions
(e.g., gang, gang incident); specific targets of agency
and inter agency efforts; and interrelated strategies—based on
problem assessment, not assumptions. Coordinated strategies
should include the following:
v Community mobilization (including citizens, youth,
community groups, and agencies).
v Social and economic opportunities, including special
school, training, and job programs. These are especially
critical for older gang members who are not in school but
may be ready to leave the gang or decrease participation
in criminal gang activity for many reasons, including
maturation and the need to provide for family.
v Social intervention (especially youth outreach and work
with street gangs directed toward mainstreaming youth).
v Gang suppression (formal and informal social control
procedures of the justice systems and community agencies
and groups). Community-based agencies and local groups
must collaborate with juvenile and criminal justice agencies
in surveillance and sharing of information under conditions
that protect the community and the civil liberties of youth.
v Organizational change and development (the appropriate
organization and integration of the above strategies
and potential reallocation of resources among involved
The Boys & Girls Clubs of America’s Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach program is another key OJJDP gang initiative. Through a referral network that links the local clubs with courts,
police, schools, social service and other agencies and organizations, as well as through direct outreach efforts, at-risk youth are recruited into local Club programs in a non stigmatizing way.
the National Youth Gang Center implements national statistical data collection and analysis effort, the ultimate goal being creation of a national uniform gang reporting system.
OJJDP also is supporting field-initiated gang research on five major topics. Two studies are examining gangs in Indian (Navaho Nation) country and among Southeast Asian youth. A study
jointly funded with the National Institute of Justice, Socialization to Gangs in an Emerging Gang City, is developing systematic baseline data on at-risk youth in St. Louis, Missouri. A fourth is
determining the proportion of serious and violent juvenile crime committed by gang-involved youth. A fifth, longitudinal study is examining the relationship between gang membership and
juvenile crime and delinquency. These efforts constitute a comprehensive, coordinated Federal
campaign to prevent, intervene in, and suppress youth gang violence and help communities identify effective programs and strategies to address the youth gang problem.
Summarize the police response to youth crime and violence in our schools: The International Association of Chiefs of Police, in response to the rising school violence have assembled a set of materials that address school violence and youth crime prevention. They provide all of the resources in one location on their website so that police leaders can become familiar with all of them and use then in an effective manner. Some of the materials and topics addressed include:
I. Federal “Pattern or Practice” Civil Rights Investigations and Agreements
The Pivotal Role of Community Policing
The Benefits of Early Intervention Strategies
Effective Management of Use of Force
Fair and Open Investigation of Citizen Complaints
Personnel and Data Management Issues Related to Civil Rights
Community Involvement in Campus Safety. This 11-minute video was developed by the IACP in partnership with the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The video highlights the breadth and scope of volunteer efforts in college and university law enforcement. The video features programs at California State University San Bernardino, the University of Alaska – Anchorage, and Lehigh University. Contact: [email protected]
Guide for Preventing and Responding to School Violence: 2nd Edition. This guide, updated in 2009, addresses both prevention and intervention from a systemic view, clarifying the roles of the school, the community, families, law enforcement and the justice system and how these groups can work together effectively to respond to the problem. Contact: Nancy Kolb
NYS Best Practices for School Safety and Security. In response to school violence incidents in New York State, the New York State Department of Homeland Security, in collaboration with the New York State Police, the University of the State of New York, and the State Emergency Management Office, joined together to create a Best Practices for School Safety and Security. This report draws on the expertise of these four agencies to provide critical prevention and response strategies for all incidents of school related violence. Contact: John Firman
Digital Imaging for Safe Schools: A Public Safety Response to Critical Incidents
In response to the several past and recent shootings within schools, IACP, in partnership with the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), has created a guide to the use of 360 degree digital cameras to create CDs that contain digital images of the interior of any school- allowing responding officers to determine best access to hostages and/or the shooter(s) for SWAT r
Partnerships for Safe School Training. This training, delivered in partnership with the Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention (OJJDP), focuses on improving school safety: course topics include principles of school safety, model school safety programs, and critical incident management.
Developing an Anti-Bullying Program: Increasing Safety, Reducing Violence. This Promising Practices Executive Brief is the first in a series produced in collaboration with Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention (OJJDP). These periodic briefs deliver information to law enforcement and justice officials and address some of the gaps in contemporary juvenile justice policy and practices. Each brief highlights a promising program that addresses an important juvenile justice issue. The next in this series will highlight Promising Practices in School Safety and is expected to be published in coming months.
Engaging Youth Through Volunteerism: This 10 minute video was developed by the IACP's Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS) Program, a partnership with the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The video introduces the benefits of law enforcement programs that engage youth and the role that youth and adult volunteers can play in offering such programs, including recreation activities, youth police academies, law enforcement exploring, and internships. Contact: [email protected]
Guidelines for Building Partnerships that Protect Our Children. A collaborative effort among the IACP, the National Children's Alliance (NCA) and the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA), and funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), the Guidelines offer a strategy build around the creation of Child Advocacy Centers (CACs) where youth receive comprehensive social, legal and enforcement services at one location.
Youth Violence in America - Summit Report. Final recommendations from the IACP summit on youth violence. Report outlines a set of strategies to help law enforcement respond to gang violence, school violence, and how to deal effectively with both youthful offenders and youthful victims. Contact: John Firman
Family Violence in America- Summit Report. Final recommendations from the IACP summit on family violence. Report outlines a set of strategies to help law enforcement responds to all types of family violence including partner violence, child abuse and elderly abuse. Contact: Contact: John Firman
Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) – Grant funded through the Bureau of Justice, the IACP holds regional symposia and site assistance trainings in support of PSN. These trainings for state, local and federal law enforcement officers and prosecutors, focus on firearms intelligence-led investigations, perfecting and prosecuting firearms cases and firearms trafficking and diversion techniques. In 2005, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales announced his plan to incorporate anti-gang initiatives into the PSN program. Currently, the IACP is working with our federal partners to integrate gang coursework into the training curricula. For more information on IACP resources regarding gangs and firearms as well as upcoming training events in your area, please use the link above to access the Gun Violence Reduction website. Contact: [email protected] .
Distinguish the factors that affect how law enforcement officers respond to status offenders: Many factors come into play. Some of the more prevalent factors are:
• Inconsistent and ineffective school attendance
• Poor record keeping
• Not notifying parents/guardians of absences
• Unsafe school environment
• Poor school climate
• Inadequate identification of special education
Family and Community Factors
• Negative peer influences, such as other truant youth
• Financial, social, medical, or other problems that
pressure students to stay home to help family
• Child abuse and neglect
• Family disorganization
• Teen pregnancy or parenthood
• Lack of family support for educational and other
• Violence in or near the home or school
• Lack of personal and educational ambition
• Poor academic performance
• Lack of self-esteem
• Unmet mental health needs
• Alcohol and drug use and abuse
Other factors include the
• The youth was substance dependent—a factor in
19% of the runaway/thrown away youth incidents.
• The youth was in the company of someone known
to be using drugs during the period of time away
from home—a factor in 18% of the runaway/
thrown away youth incidents.
• The youth had previously attempted suicide—a
factor in 4% of the runaway/thrown away youth
• The youth missed at least five days of school
immediately before running away—a factor in 4%
of the runaway/thrown away youth incidents.
Distinguish between “traditional” bullying and “cyber” bullying: Technology makes bullying even easier than it was before with email, chat rooms, and an unlimited audience online. There was a time when all bullying happened face to face but now with the internet, children can bully each other through popular communication methods even anonymously. Traditional bullies always had to let their victims see them and could only gain the support of friends who were around. Cyber bullies can humiliate, threaten, and belittle their victims without their identity being known, or they can have an audience of thousands. Cyber bullies are becoming more and more common as children use these communication methods more and more in their daily lives.
Cyber bullies can say things that they can not in front of other people in chat rooms, IM's and on websites. This allows children to be much meaner than they traditionally could. Things that they could not say in front of adults and even other children are now easily said online. Cyber bullying is potentially an even bigger threat than traditional bullying because the potential for damaging statements is even greater. Traditional bullies could only reach an audience of the other children around, with the internet hundreds of children can gang up on a single child.
Cyber bullying is also easier to do than traditional bullying. All it takes is a few key strokes and a cyber bully can humiliate their target. Children are less inhibited when online and it is not as hard to bully when it is over a computer. Traditional bullies had to have the courage to physically bully another child or at least use comments to their face. Cyber bullies have to use much less effort and can be more impulsive.
Traditional bullies could only act out on their victims when they saw them. This confined bullying to school and places that children interacted face to face. Cyber bullies can bully others any time as cell phones and computers are both at home and at school. Traditional bullies could not hurt others at home, but with cyber bullies, home is usually where bullying occurs via the computer. This leaves no safe place for the targets of bullying to go as computers are essential nowadays for completing schoolwork and communicating with friends.
Even though emails and messages are easy to stop, cyber bullies is not as easy to stop as traditional bullies are. Derogatory and hurtful comments posted online and shared between people are impossible to stop and can potentially reach an unlimited number of people. Once a comment is posted online it can reach an unlimited number of people and the ramifications can be huge. Stopping a traditional bully was relatively easy with the right preventative measures, but the anonymous nature of the internet makes it impossible.
There are many differences between cyber bullies and traditional bullies but both types are serious issues. Bullying negatively affects both the bully and the victim and if not stopped can cause serious long term damage.
Discuss the four-pronged threat assessment approach: Four Pronged Assessment Approach:
In dealing with threats, a multidisciplinary four pronged approach is suggested. Whenever possible, the parent or guardian should be a part of the assessment process, as soon as possible.
Prong one: The personality of the student- refers to the way (within a specific developmental context) a student copes with conflict, disappointment, humiliation and other negatives. It includes how the student feels about himself, what kind of resiliency they have and what kinds of attitudes they have toward others. These are just a few of the areas to be considered.
Prong two: Family dynamics- refers to the patterns of behavior, belief systems, roles and customs of the family. The degree to which a student is or is not supported in the family unit is looked at. Specifically, the presence of family violence is determined.
Prong three: School dynamics- refers to the patterns of behavior, belief systems, roles and customs of the school culture. It looks at what values and behaviors are rewarded or castigated, either formally or informally within the school
Prong four: Social dynamics- refers to the patterns of behavior, belief systems, roles and customs of the larger community in which the student lives. These patterns have an impact upon the way a student feels about herself and others, as well as how they cope with stress.
Identify the pros and cons of zero-tolerance policies. Should they be utilized? Why or why not?
Pro's: Establishes a safe place at school during this time of school shootings;Ridding schools of negativity;American Bar Association Journal reported that since 1990, crime of all types in public schools is down by as much as thirty percent; helped to curb kids bringing to school weapons, pets, drugs; school police officers on the front lines are reporting finding less contraband in the pockets of students
Con's: It is often the case, policy enforced without common sense commonly results in unfair treatment; the zero tolerance policy being used without any form of leniency or discretion; careless application discredits its positive effects; National Center for Education Statistics reported that "schools with no crime reported were less likely to have a zero tolerance policy for violence than schools that had reported one or more serious crimes; teaches kids that they are to bow to authority no matter what, even when they are innocent which lowers their trust in others and self-esteem; and most of all it is absurd to remove common sense from schools and causes resentment.
Compare and contrast the Justice Model with the Welfare Model: Historically young offenders were treated the same as adults; they were convicted and punished as adults in adult Courts. Age offered no exoneration. Justice systems were characterized by the "classical approach"; crime was seen as a rational act of freewill. Punishment was focused on deterrence rather than reform and applied equally to adults and children. In the latter part of the 19th century it was acknowledged children were uniquely vulnerable. Consequently child-centered and welfare-based treatments were developed. In English Common Law the "doli incapax" rule was developed. Children under 7 were given immunity while those between the ages of 7 and 14 were presumed incapable of doing wrong unless there was evidence to the contrary. Children over 14 continued to be tried and convicted as adults.
The welfare model is based on the belief criminal behavior in young offenders stems from various factors relating to undesirable upbringing and environment.
Explain therapeutic intervention. Do you agree with the premise of therapeutic intervention? Why or why not? It is a program designed for individuals who struggle mentally and/or emotionally, have social deficits, are hyperactive, depressive, disruptive to others. It commonly offers school-based day treatment and program case management programs. They are based on the belief that all children and adolescents have the ability to grow and achieve their full potential. I think this is a positive program so long as it is not overly cost extensive, and if there are measures implemented to prevent the children who participate from being perceived by others, or even themselves, as different or stupid or weird.
What is ISP? Is this a viable alternative? Why or why not? Support your answer
It is an intensifying support program. The ISP is a school improvement program designed to raise standards and improve teaching and learning in the
context of the school as a professional learning community.
It is based on the cycle of audit and setting targets, action and review. The program aims to draw together
existing good teaching and learning practice in LEAs and schools in order to maximize impact. It concurs with the
statement in Excellence and Enjoyment. I think it is a viable alternative. It depends on the community, its needs, and what works best. For example, maybe the ISP work best in inner-city urban like school settings and ETI works best for smaller, more private schools in the suburbs. I think when the goal is to better people's lives, especially the lives of children, it is almost always a positive. The support for my answer is in history: Before, kids who struggled just dropped out and ended up with no skills for life. They ended up poor, unschooled, and with bad self-esteem. Now, kids are helped along if they have troubles and are taught skills for living and coping with their deficits.
List and describe the four components that are typically included in a modern, comprehensive graduate sanctions system: There are four types of interventions in a modern comprehensive graduated sanctions system: immediate sanctions, intermediate sanctions, secure confinement, and aftercare/reentry.
Immediate sanctions are basically diversion mechanisms that hold youth accountable for their actions by sanctioning behavior and in some cases securing services, but at the same time generally avoiding formal court processing. They are appropriate for most first-time misdemeanor offenders, many minor repeat offenders, and some nonviolent felons. The concept of diversion is based on the theory that processing certain youth through the juvenile justice system may do more harm than good (Lundman, 1993). Such sanctions include restitution/community service, family group conferences, youth courts, victim impact panels, victim-offender mediation, and mentoring.
Intermediate sanctions are criminal sentences that fall between standard probation and incarceration. Intermediate sanctions can include house arrest, intensive probation (i.e., probation with more conditions beyond the basic conditions of standard probation), boot camps, electronic monitoring, and drug treatment programs. Intermediate sanctions serve a dual purpose in the criminal justice system. Intermediate sanctions include intensive supervision, day treatment facilities, home confinement/electronic monitoring, alternative schools, school-based probation, and intensive nonresidential treatment programs.
Secure confinement are secure corrections for the most serious, violent, chronic offenders (e.g., training schools).
After care/reentry: Aftercare (consisting of a continuum of court-based step-down program options that culminate in discharge).
Discuss the challenges facing juvenile, correctional facilities:
Youth murders and sexual assaults from 1975 to 2005 declined 55% and 81% respectively. Despite an overall decrease in crimes, young men in adult correctional facilities increased twofold
from 1990 to 2005. Now all states can transfer teenagers to adult court where
they face adult sentences, including life without parole, such that in 2000 an estimated 2,225
youth received sentences of life without parole.
As the brain develops during the adolescent period, it is plastic and subject to experiential influences including psychological trauma. Despite this strong evidence that adolescents are subject to
immature decision making, new laws hold teens accountable for crimes as though they were functioning as adults. Despite the reductions in juvenile crime, gang involvement and offending remains a significant challenge.
What is re-entry? How is it different from probation? What are the two key components of aftercare? Which do you feel is most important? Why? It is when offenders are allowed back into society after their punishment. Under probation, an inmate is released and a parole officer checks on them, and the inmate is still subject to the court, and its orders. The offenders have more freedom in re-entry, but now there are programs and services to assist the offender re-enter the community.
Two key components of the aftercare concept distinguish it from the traditional juvenile justice model. First, offenders must receive both services and supervision. (Offenders in the traditional juvenile justice system are generally sentenced to some type of supervision and are sometimes provided with services.) Second, they must receive intensive intervention while they are incarcerated, during their transition to the community, and when they are under community supervision. I think that the intensive intervention is most important because it is personalized and based on the journey of each offender from offender to law abiding citizen. It is most important because anyone can throw money into a program to assist others, but when the assistance is personal, it provides for the recipient to connect with others.
Compare the similarities between juvenile correctional institutions and adult correctional institutions in terms of social organization and culture: Rehabilitation is often the key concept of juvenile corrections, and not the adult corrections. It may seem that there are more ‘incentive’ programs offered for adolescent criminals. there are a lot more types of facilities for adults than for juveniles. Private jails and prisons (contracted from the government), regional jails, minimum security, low security, medium security, maximum security, and super-maximum security facilities mainly serve the adult population. Places like secure mental health facilities, boot camp incarceration, and juvenile detention facilities are more conducive to juvenile corrections; although, some of the mentioned facilities may be used interchangeably for both juveniles and adults. The purpose of placing juvenile offenders in separate facilities from adult criminals is to insulate juveniles from “bad influences,” to protect them, and to attempt to curb criminal tendencies before adulthood is reached.
Explain the six principles of preventing delinquency as indicated by the OJJDP
six underlying principles:
Community control and decision-making -- The Community Prevention Grants Program enables local jurisdictions to assess their own delinquency prevention needs and resources and then design and implement appropriate, sustainable delinquency prevention initiatives.
Research foundation for planning -- The program promotes a rational framework for responding to adolescent problem behaviors that is based on decades of juvenile delinquency research (Howell, 1995). Through systematic risk assessments and ongoing data collection activities, communities identify and prioritize areas of risk that warrant delinquency prevention resources and track the outcomes of their delinquency prevention efforts.
Comprehensive and multidisciplinary solutions -- To increase the efficacy of delinquency prevention efforts and reduce duplication of services, the program requires that each community designate a Prevention Policy Board, a multidisciplinary planning board including representatives from law enforcement, juvenile justice, education, recreation, social services, private industry, health and mental health agencies, churches, civic organizations, and other youth and family service organizations.
Leverage of resources and systems -- While some subgrant awards are relatively small, this seed money can provide both a financial base and the incentives necessary for local jurisdictions to secure additional resources and implement sustainable delinquency prevention systems in their communities. Local risk and resource assessments lend validity to requests for local and State funding and enable communities to use more effectively the delinquency prevention funds they secure.
Evaluation to monitor program success -- At the local level, requisite program evaluation activities enable stakeholders to assess progress, refine their programs, and optimize effectiveness over time. Community members receive the tools needed to assess program outcomes and monitor long-term changes in the prevalence of risk factors and adolescent problem behaviors in the community. In addition, OJJDP is conducting a national evaluation to analyze program results across communities, assess the impact of Federal program dollars, and gather and disseminate information on what does and does not work in delinquency prevention.
Long-term perspective -- Perhaps most important, this program does not propose quick-fix solutions to complicated juvenile problems, but rather has adopted a long-term perspective that fosters positive, sustained community change. Short-term efforts must be combined with long-term investments to create healthier and safer neighborhoods over the long run.
In the Community Prevention Grants Program, these fundamental principles are combined to form a strategic approach to reducing juvenile delinquency and provide a sound framework for its practical application.
Summarize the factors encouraging policymakers to seek reform in the juvenile justice system. Do you agree with the factors? Support your answer: Recent technology revealing how the adolescent brain works and develops, reevaluation of competency,detention and confinement concerns. A program was developed to address the need for reform: The Task Force on Juvenile Justice Reform (TFJJR) of the American Academy
of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) was established to draw national
attention to numerous areas within the juvenile justice system that would benefit
by various degrees and types of reform. This effort was identified as a primary
initiative by Clarice Kestenbaum, AACAP President (1999 – 2001).
1. Courts should require an opinion by a child trained mental health professional
on the impact of face-to-face testimony on a child witness for each case in
which a child is identified as a witness.
2. Courts should allow for expert testimony by either the plaintiff or defendant’s
side to rebut attempts to impeach a child’s testimony.
3. Courtrooms should be modified to accommodate the developmental needs of
a child and to lessen related fears, which may overwhelm a child who may be
4. Investigations of child abuse should be conducted in a fashion that
accommodates the developmental needs of each individual child.
5. Interrogations of children should be conducted so as to avoid replication.
6. Court-appointed or independent child trained experts should determine a
child’s credibility of each potential child witness.
7. The court should solicit independent child trained mental health experts to
determine the mental health needs of each child witness and whether or not
the mental condition of the child may impact his or her testimony.
8. The determination of the understanding of Miranda rights by a child should be
conducted in a developmental context.
I agree with most of the factors because as we learn more about the physical, mental and emotional development of children, especially with the use of new technological advances in the medical field, etc., the approach and methodology must change with it according to new findings and results.
List and explain the nine tenets set for by A Blueprint for Juvenile Justice Reform:
1. Reduce Institutionalization
Institutionalization is often linked to failure. While necessary
for youth who pose serious public safety risks, the
overwhelming majority of justice-involved youth can be
safely supervised and treated in the community or in non-secure
facilities. These youth do not belong in a state’s
most expensive and secure settings.
2. Reduce Racial Disparity
Sadly, even in this 21st century, young people of color are
significantly over-represented in the justice and foster
care systems, as well as among struggling students, due
to conscious and subconscious racial bias. In nearly every
state, in every juvenile offense category—person, property,
drug, and public order—youth of color receive harsher
sentences10 and fewer services than white youth who have
committed the same category of offenses.11
3. Ensure Access to Quality Counsel
Across the country, youth too often face court hearings
without the assistance of competent counsel—sometimes
appointed as little as five minutes before the case is called.
Like all Americans, youth need access to qualified, well resourced
defense counsel throughout the entire juvenile
or criminal court process. Counsel is essential to reducing
the chance of youth being unnecessarily detained, transferred
to the adult system and/or incarcerated.13
4. Create a Range of Community-Based
Community-based programs can change the trajectories
of young people. These programs range from probation
to intensive supervision, home confinement, alternative
education, family preservation, restitution, community
service, and day and evening reporting centers with educational,
recreational and counseling opportunities. They
can stand alone or be housed in existing community-based
organizations serving a broad range of youth.
5. Recognize and Serve Youth with
The juvenile justice system is too often used as a dumping
ground for youth whose primary problems include serious
emotional disturbance, developmental disabilities,
substance abuse or a combination of these challenges.
These youth are in desperate need of alternatives because
juvenile justice systems can be particularly harmful for
youth with specialized needs.
6. Create Smaller Rehabilitative
Some youth do require close monitoring. For those youth
who pose serious risks to public safety, a convincing case
is being made for phasing out large, prison-like institutions
and creating small, home-like secure facilities in
their place. Evidence shows that treating youth as youth
improves their chances for success in life.
7. Improve Aftercare and Reentry
Nearly 100,000 youth are released from juvenile justice
institutions each year. Key to their success is having
community agencies and schools ready for them upon
their return. Increasingly, funders and policymakers are
recognizing the need to connect youth to programs and
services that will reinforce their rehabilitation and help
them become successful and productive adults
8. Maximize Youth, Family and
Another key aspect of juvenile justice reform is the participation
of youth, parents and the community both in
an adolescent’s treatment and rehabilitation, as well as
in systemic reform efforts. True reform tackles not just
the system; it engages the people who youth encounter in
their day-to-day lives.
9. Keep Youth Out of Adult Prisons
During the 1990s—the era when many of our most punitive
criminal justice policies were developed—49 states
altered their laws to increase the number of minors being
tried as adults. Roughly 210,000 minors nationwide are
now prosecuted in adult courts and sent to adult prisons
each year.17 Yet studies show that youth held in adult facilities
are eight times more likely to commit suicide,18 five
times more likely to report being a victim of rape, twice as
likely to report being beaten by staff and 50 percent more
likely to be attacked with a weapon.19 Youth sent to adult
court also return to crime at a higher rate.20 Equally unacceptable
is the fact that youth of color are over-represented
in the ranks of juveniles being referred to adult court
compared to white youth charged with the same category
Discuss the trends indicating that the united States is moving toward reform in the juvenile justice system: A concentration on the outcomes of offenders; the role the state legislature play in policy involved; there is a move to put more of an emphasis on prevention; new approaches for truants, and runaways; a change in response to minor delinquent behavior; more funding is slated for rehabilitation and prevention; the rising concern over what authority the court should have over offenders' parents; addressing concerns of minority over representation in the system; and new methods addressing recidivism.