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The bulb is a tiny bulb we like to call a "grain of rice", it is accessed by setting the center dial to straight up and down (so you know how to reinsert it when done) and then pulling the handle straight out. Using a piece of plastic fuel line or rubber vacuum line with a 1/8 inside diameter, slide it in and over the bulb, and pull the bulb straight out. When reinserting, put the bulb into the hose, insert it firmly, and give it a slight twist to release the hose as you slide it out.
I don't think there is an LED equivalent that would fit and be easy to install. They fail every few years, minimal difficulty replacing them.
The Passenger heated seat may be due to a broken wire in the mat, feel around near where your legs would sit to feel for a soft spot that may indicate the wire has broken and melted the foam bolster or damaged the back of the seat cover.
Often you can get this repair fixed for FREE by the VW dealer as it was a common issue and could result in burns to a passenger. I'd give them a call and at least ask.
Should specify- there is only ONE bulb for the controls- the others are lit by a clear plastic "spider" on the backside that routes that light to each of the other control dials!