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The turbo is located on the backside of the engine, directly above the inner CV joint area on the passenger side. There is a feed line on top, and a return line at the bottom. The oil filter is at the front of the engine, so not close. And yes, the turbo uses engine oil, fed from the oil filter housing through a feed line to the turbo, and the return just dumps it back into the oil pan.
I would suggest doing an inspection up farther to see where the oil is coming from- possibly cleaning off everything completely, filling the oil, and seeing if oil traces start to appear after driving a few times.