1- horse with toe on the ground and heal is raised and asked the condition a)Rupture .of SFT B)Rep.of DDFT (deep digital flexor tendon). C) demage to suspensory ligament.d) Rep.of extensor tendon.2- A cat comes to your clinic with dyspnea and open mouth breathing what will you do firsta) Oxygen supply b) X rays, C) ultrasound.3- Uveal apparatus is composed of what?4- A dog with the history of dyspnea ,exercise intolerance, TPR was given BUT the HR was 240, what is the condition a)ventrical tachycardia b)PVC c)Atrial fibrillation d)sick sinus syndrome5- What do you use to do anaesthesia for the udder or the teats?a) Local ring anesthesiab) Epidural anesthesiac) General anesthesia.6-Side effect of propophol7- when to remove nasal tube?8- sign of ventral septal defect, the liver is enlarged due to what?
Hi, I'm Dr. Jill.1. I actually don't think you can differentiate these options solely by the sign of the toe on the ground and the heel raised. Horses with numerous causes of pain will rest on their toe to keep weight off of that limb. This includes foot pain, and injuries to the structures down the back of the limb (SDFT, DDFT, and suspensory). However, if you see the heel on the ground and the toe raised, this indicative of deep digital flexor tendon rupture.2. Oxygen...always the first option for respiratory distress.3. The Uvea is the middle section of the eye (beneath the sclera) and consists of the iris, the choroid (blood vessels that serve the eye), and the ciliary body (structure behind the iris responsible for making aqueous humor...fluid inside the eye). Also known as the uveal tract.4. Question: Is the heart rate regular or irregular?5. Local ring anesthesia. Epidural anesthesia will not reach this area, and general anesthesia is riskier in ruminants and would only be done for very invasive procedures.6. Propofol causes apnea on anesthetic induction, especially if given quickly or in large doses. This is probably the most recognized side effect. It can also cause hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias (bradycardia, tachycardia), decreased cardiac output, and can be painful on injection even through an IV catheter.7. I presume this is a nasopharyngeal tube for airway management during general anesthesia? If so, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal intubation tubes are generally removed once the patient is able to swallow and protect their own airway again.8. Liver is likely enlarged due to heart disease or heart failure from the structural heart defect. With a ventral septal defect, not all of the blood that should go out to the body does. Instead, the higher pressure left ventricle pushes blood through the defect into the right ventricle. Over time, this overworks the heart and blood backs up that has no room to come back from the body into the right side of the heart. Pressure increases for blood coming back from the body into the heart and backs up. This can cause hepatomegaly, ascities, etc. with right sided heart failure and often leads to concurrent left sided heart failure as well.
6 years of veterinary experience
regarding #1I know that the case is bone spavin but I wanted to know which one is the correct answer.#4 the heart rate is 240#8 the choices are :a) pulmonary insuffecienyb) aortic insuffecency or c) mitral valve insuffecency.by the way those question to help me in the NAVLE Test
I would like to try to help, but I am confused by your reply.1. Could you explain what the question is here? Bone spavin is not one of the given options and was not mentioned previously...is this relevant to the question? Is there other information given? The question cannot be answered as it was originally stated above.4. Is the heart rate regular or irregular? You had previously mentioned the tachycardia (tachycardic even for a small dog - normal heart rates are size dependent). 8. You previously mentioned a ventral septal defect...this is a separate structural defect apart from valvular insufficiency. I described the mechanism for liver enlargement due to VSD as you previously asked. Is this actually a different question?By the way, you need to work on your spelling as well. I misspell things constantly myself so I very much sympathize that it can be difficult. However, the internet is a wonderful resource for determining correct spellings. I would suggest checking more closely.Also, I'm curious...what resource are these questions coming from?
Thank you for your comments on my spelling #1 the question is as stated originally. bone spavin is only my diagnosis of the case.4- I think the heart is irregular.8- the question was like that: sign of ventral septal defect, the liver is enlarged due to what?a) pulmonary insufficienyb) aortic insufficency or c) mitral valve insufficency.
Thank you for the additional information. 1. I don't see any evidence specific to bone spavin here. There is not enough information within "horse with toe on the ground and heal is raised" to determine the cause as this is a non-specific lameness finding. But, what I'm guessing they're going for is extensor tendon rupture. The extensor tendon runs down the front of the limb and is involved with pulling up the toe. If it's ruptured, the horse's toe will be pointed to the ground with the heel raised.However, horses with foot pain or any of the other 3 causes may be unwilling to bear full weight on the foot and stretch the flexor tendons and suspensory, a different cause for resting on the toe, though it is less dramatic than an extensor tendon rupture.4. Does it specifically state the HR is irregular? Perhaps it would help to post the question word for word...8. I'm afraid this question doesn't make physiologic sense. VSD causes hepatomegaly via heart failure and may or may not be present with valvular insufficiency. Valvular insufficiencies can also cause heart failure of their own accord. Given the information I gave you previously and your knowledge of the heart, how about you take a guess and what valvular insufficiency (apart from VSD) would cause hepatomegaly and right sided heart failure prior to left sided heart failure? :)Also, what resource are these questions coming from?