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Although it prevents new stone formation, medical therapy does not dissolve preexisting calcium stones. A variety of medical treatments may correct the underlying metabolic defects responsible for stone formation, thereby reducing the occurrence of new stone formation. Examples for which controlled trials have demonstrated benefit include a high fluid intake for all forms of stone disease, a thiazide diuretic for hypercalciuria, allopurinol or potassium citrate for hyperuricosuria, potassium citrate for hypocitraturia, and potassium citrate for uric acid stone formation due to persistently acid urine.