UK Property Law
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Check your tenancy agreement, your landlord will be obligated to keep the property in repair.
You should write a formal letter to him putting him on notice of the disrepair, specify the repair required required and request that he makes the repair within a reasonable time (state, for example, 14 days). Also state that if he does not carry out the repair that you will pay to have the works done yourself and seek to claim the expense from him and are prepared to go to Court if necessary.
If he does not do the repairs then you can pay to have them done and claim the money from him. If he will not pay you after a request in writing you can issue claim yourself using www.moneyclaim.gov.uk
There is the option calling the local authority environmental health to see if they can visit in the hope that they may assert that it is unfit for human habitation. This would entitle you to terminate your tenancy agreement, but if the complaint is that the property is just cold then it seems improbable that the environmental officer will find it uninhabitable.
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Is it a legal requirement for him to have a certain amount of insulation in the house? I heard according to EU law that this is in fact the case but am not 100% certain. The problem I have is that he keeps on sending plumbers around to no avail, while this is costing me a small fortune, why is it that people buy houses and are able to rent them out without them being 100% up to the task, if this was my house there is no way I could live like this or rent it out in this condition to someone knowing there is a problem with the heating. I appreciate your response.
With respect to plumbers just being sent round and not doing anything, this is exactly why you have to make your request formal.
The truth is that Landlord's will get away with spending as little as they possibly can. As a tenant you have rights (which tenants often do not know how to assert) as I have outlined above.
I am unaware of any EU regulation enforcing standard of insulation in buildings that are already built. If a house is converted or built then I believe there are UK enforced standards as to insulation through building regulation, but presumably this does not apply to you. I think you are better off pursuing your rights to have the existing heating system repaired
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