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It's a common problem trying to get the handles off on this style of tap.After taking the set screw out of the handle, you will need to wiggle the tap handle back and forth and even tap on it with a rubber mallet so you do not damage it. The taps scale up over time making it hard to get off. The cartridge is either very loose causing the water to stay on (which you will need to tighten) or you might have to replace the orings on the cartridge or replace the cartridge itself. Hope this helps.
there should be a ceramic disc valve there that you can put a wrench on. Or there should be a nut that holds it in place. I need to be able to see a pic of the valve in order to see for myself.
#4 the shield should unscrew so you can get at the cartridge
might not be even threaded in. could just pop right off if not threaded in.