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This would only be discrimination if it is because of your race, age, gender, religion, etc. But otherwise such inconsistencies could amount to victimisation and generally less favourable treatment. It is difficult to make a direct claim for this but if you get dismissed for example then you can use this as evidence that you were not treated fairly.
If you are off sick your employer should not proceed with the disciplinary in your absence. If they have a date for the hearing you need to let them know as soon as possible that you are off sick and request that they set a new date once you are going to be back in work. They can only be expected to postpone a couple of times before holding the hearing without you.
There is nothing illegal about talking about sex in work but there are potential issues depending on the context of the conversations. For example certain use of sexual words could amount to sexual harassment depending on how they are used. They could also be considered offensive by some employees. So the answer is that it is not illegal but there are potential issues depending on the context they are used in.
This will not be very relevant I’m afraid. It’s like saying that because someone kills a fly they also have the capability of killing a person. Not everyone is perfect and because someone is not following a workplace policy it does not automatically make them untrustworthy in general.