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Welcome,I have been a professional master mechanic for over 35 years and am happy to help you with this.
Yes, most likely that fuse blew when that wire shorted to ground. You can test that fuse if you have a voltmeter. Simply test both ends of fuse and it should have 12 volts on each end.
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Please let me know either way.
Yes it will prevent it from starting because its also the main fuse for more than just the alternator. They are tough to remove but thats what it needs.
Dont beat yourself up too bad, believe me it happens to the best of us, even after 35 years this crap still happens to me. Yes its a fairly big job replacing that fuse. Once you can get to it you can either test it for continuity on both ends or 12 volts on each end. that will tell you for sure its bad but from what you have described thats by far the most common fuse that blows when something gets shorted.
Here is a video but the audio is kinda bad.
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