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Hello. Welcome to Just Answer. Please allow me to assist you. Anytime you short the alternator hot wire to ground, you run the risk of popping the main fuse. This is the large rectangular fuse in the engine room fuse panel on the passenger side. Almost all of the battery current flows thru this main fuse. Please look at it closely. An older fuse may open/blow and the break may be very small and hard to see. This fuse should have an '80' embossed on the top of it.
Oh. Ok. Sorry, I did not see where you mentioned that the fuse was blown on my screen. Since this fuse carries such a high amount of current, any clearance between the 'legs' of the fuse and the buss bars will arc and overheat the fuse, causing it to blow or melt. To prevent this condition, Toyota bolts the 'legs' of the fuse to the buss bars. To remove the fuse, you need to get under the fuse panel and remove the bolts that holds the fuse to the buss bars. This will entail removing the fuse panel from the fender . Make sure you disconnect the battery negative terminal before starting, as the socket may short out on you against the buss bars and cause a spark.
Should be an 8 mm bolt that holds the fuse to the buss bar inside the fuse panel.
That should not have happened. The large fuse should have opened to protect that circuit.