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I suspect that the new battery was not fully charged. Sometimes even brand new ones will lose charge sitting on the shelf for so long. You will need to do a trickle charge on the 12v battery. They do sell these chargers at the local parts stores. It must charge at less than 4 amps or damage can occur.
You can jump start the car under the hood at the jumper terminals but it is not good on the alternator to force it to try and charge a low battery.