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Per IRS publication 334:
Self-employed health insurance deduction. You may be able to deduct the amount you paid for medical and dental insurance and qualified long-term care insurance for you and your family.
Is your premium more than your profit from your business? Is your spouse covered under employer sponsored plan at work or is he eligible for one? Does the insurance plan cover both of you or you have a separate policy?
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Medicare premiums must be under the name of the sole proprietor, which means you can only deduct your own because your plan doesn't cover his premium. But if you have supplemental plan in addition to Medicare that covers both, you can deduct it.
The premiums must be paid by the sole proprietor or the business. If the premium are paid through his pension plan, it is not paid by you or your business or your plan. That's the reason why the premium is not deductible. Another reason is the eligibility. If you spouse is eligible for employer/state/government sponsored plan, the premiums are also not deductible.
The only premiums you can deduct are premiums you pay yourself for yourself and your family and dependents. You do not pay his Medicare or insurance through his pensions.
To deduct the premium, the policy must be under the sole proprietor's name or his business. The policy can cover the spouse but cannot be under spouse's name.