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Hi, my name is Mark, I will be happy to help you with your questions.
Please give me a moment, I am looking into your questions. If you are working and receiving Social Security than a portion of your Social Security income will be taxable (85%).
Income earned while working in international waters is not considered foreign income so it would not be eligible for the foreign income exclusion. However, income earned while docked in port, or traveling in waters that belong to a foreign country will qualify for the exclusion. You would need to allocate how much was earned while on port or in a countries sea, and how much was earned on international waters.
What country is the ship out of? What is the country of the employer?
If the ship has no nexus to the US. I would expect that this would all be considered foreign income.
You would need to live abroad 330 days during a 12 month period. Are you a citizen of another country besides the US?