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As you probably suspect he is not very honest and most likely cheating getting Medicaid and other government benefits. I would strongly recommend not to file a joint return with him. It could get you in enormous trouble if IRS finds out that he is also cheating on is taxes. You will be responsible for his taxes and he will find a way to get out of it.
If you do not live together for more than 6 month, you can file head of household since your dependents live with you or file married filing separate. Do not sign a joint return. And if he files jointly without your knowledge, file a paper return yourself, even if you do not have any income. It will cancel the joint return and you stay protected in case his income get audited.
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No, you are not. When you file a joint tax return with somebody you declare Under penalties of perjury that to the best of your knowledge the return is correct. If IRS audit that return and finds deficiencies, you will BOTH be responsible for the balance. IRS will not split it in half, it will go after both of you until the full balance is paid off. No declaration of settlement will change it.
The question that is often asked to determine somebody's liability is did the person knew or had a reason to know. And that's the tricky question. If you knew that he is using different address to get medicaid, basically misleading the authorities, maybe hiding his assets in LLC by using your address for tax forms, you will have difficult time to prove that you had no way of knowing that he potentially may cheat on your joint tax return. I would not file a joint return with him.
IRS is a government agency with its own rules. Any notarized declarations or court papers may protect you in civil courts but not when it comes to IRS.
The only way to protect yourself from tax debt is not to file a joint return with somebody who has or may have issues with IRS.