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First you need to determine if your disability will be taxable.
You must report as income any amount you receive for your disability through an accident or health insurance plan paid for by your employer:
If form the above you know that you payments will be taxable then you can submit a Form W-4S, Request for Federal Income Tax Withholding From Sick Pay, to the insurance company.
The withholding is similar to what you would claim for wage withholding on a W4.
The W4S has a section for calculating the amount to withhold.