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If you had NO income - that would not make any difference whether you filed or not form 8843.You should file Form 8843 to explain the basis of your claim that you can exclude days of presence in the United States for purposes of the substantial presence test because as a student you were an exempt individual.That would allow you to be treated as a nonresident alien.The difference is that resident aliens are taxed on all worldwide income - and nonresident aliens are taxed ONLY on income from US sources.
But if you had NO income - you would have NO tax liability regardless of your residency classification for tax purposes.
Please be aware that there is a penalty for not timely filing form 8843 - but yu will not be penalized if you can show by clear and convincing evidence that you took reasonable actions to become aware of the filing requirements and significant steps to comply with those requirements.That means - as soon as you learned about filing requirements - you file all missing forms - and explain that late filing is not a willful violation..I appreciate if you take a moment to rate the answer.Experts are ONLY credited when answers are rated positively.If you still have any doubts, need clarification - please be sure to ask.I am here to help you will all tax related issues.