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At times taxpayers will call the IRS because they received a Letter 608C, Dishonored Check Penalty Explained, stating that their payment was dishonored and returned from a financial institution (bank) unpaid. This may be the letter you are expecting but the issuance depends on when the check was denied. Generally your bank will probably notify you before you receive the letter from the IRS.
The IRS does not submit checks or other commercial payment instruments a second time for payment. The resubmission of a payment is in the hands of the clearinghouse. When a check or other commercial payment instrument is not paid, the clearinghouse frequently resubmits it to the bank. If your bank will not honor the check then you will need to send another check with a copy of the voucher.
If you do not have a copy of the voucher you can send a new correct check to the IRS using the voucher at the following link
You can go online a pay the IRS.
The IRS page that shows all your payment options is here