Sorry to hear of your injuries.
Your original question was about if filing is required and that answer is the same even if there are deductions that exceed the income for the Schedule C.
You do need to file a 2012 return with Schedule C and if that Schedule C has allowable deductions more then income the loss can be used to reduce total income and likely would increase a refund or decrease the balance due.
Not sure if you are saying that you did or did not file for 2012 yet when you say you used Turbotax. If not, you need to add the items in and send it and if you did already file then an amended return
on Form 1040X can be used to add the items that were left out of the first filing.
Turbotax can be used to file the 2012 electronically and also to amend a return that was already filed and accepted by the IRS. For instructions please see http://turbotax.intuit.com/support/iq/Amend-a-Return/How-to-Amend--Change-or-Correct--a-2012-Return/GEN85210.html
To inquire about the status of a return that you filed it would not be taxpayer advocate but the usual number(NNN) NNN-NNNNto use.
If you got an inquiry form the IRS then the number on that notice should be contacted about the additional information of expenses before filing an amended return.
Hope that clarifies for you.