Thanks for asking your question! I'm sorry to hear about your tax issue and I'm going to try my best to help you understand or resolve it.
Thank you for your question, and I'm sorry to hear about your situation. I realize it must be very frustrating. However, I don't think you should just "pay" taxes if you're certain you had withholding. Now, you need proof that state tax was withheld. If the IRS proof shows how much state income tax was withheld, then they should take that as proof. If not, hire a CPA or attorney to deal with the state on your behalf.
Order your wage and income transcript from the IRS - this should have the information from your W-2 on it. You can request this by mailing in form 4506
-T and selecting box 8. CLICK HERE
for that form. It will be much faster to get this from your former employer, if possible.
Also, your former employer should have those records for you. If you can physically go to the payroll office, I would consider doing so. Keep calling - get in touch with a manager. Do anything you can to get that W-2.
Another thought do you have your final pay stub for the year in question? That would give you valuable proof as well. Take a look in your financial records and see if maybe you are lucky and still have that proof.
So, what you should do is continue trying to get your W-2 from your former employer. Then, you should also get what information you can from the IRS regarding your withholding. Don't just "give up" and pay more tax than you have to.
Please let me know if you need any additional assistance in this matter. Good luck, and I hope that your tax issues are resolved quickly and to your favor.
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You should be aware that your question, as with most tax questions, can never really be answered completely...addressing all the permutations; that is because of the many assumptions that have to be made I have done my best to determine what I think you are asking and answering it in the most direct and understandable manner possible. If, however, after reviewing the questions, you have any uncertainties or further questions, please do not hesitate to ask.