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Hello and thank you for your questions. As you probably know, 7.5% of your gross income is a lot, and that is a large threshold to cross.
Regarding Insurance payments through your employment----generally, most insurance premiums for health, dental and vision are taken out of your pay on a PRE-TAX basis, because this is allowed by federal law. If this is the case, in effect, you are already having these payments deducted from your federal income, and cannot take a deduction for them again on your tax return. If you are not sure if your health insurance premiums are deducted on a pre-tax basis, you will need to ask your human resources department.
Regarding all medical deductions, you can add up prescriptions, copays, hospital stays, dental bills, vision, glasses, contacts, braces, etc. etc. However, you can only deduct what you actually pay in 2010. If you do not have the receipts, insurance statements are a good place to start, but if you were ever audited you would still need to prove that you paid the expenses. You can usually regenerate or ask for receipts for medical bills in the case of an audit, from the doctor, pharmacy, etc.
Medical mileage is 16.5 cents per mile in 2010. All medical trips, even going to the pharmacy to pick up a prescription can be counted. Tolls and parking related to medical trips can be counted as well.
You do not need a special form for medical deductions. You can enter your medical expense information into Turbo Tax and the program will do the calculation. Schedule A is where medical expenses are taken.
You may wish to refer to Pub. 502 for a more complete list of medical deductions and more information. http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p502.pdf
The audit time period is generally three years after the due date for most returns. The audit period can be extended for fraud or a gross understatement of income.
I am not aware of any credit card for medical use other than a flex spending card, but you could certainly get a card just for medical use.
You should get into the habit of asking the provider for a receipt every time---they won't like it, but you are the customer. Make a folder that you can put all medical receipts in.